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S: Religions of the East

BC: Book By: Paul G. N. Kendrick O. Miranda R. Period 3, Group 8

FC: Religions of the East Guide to the Major religions of India and Asia

1: Confucius was born in 551 BC in northern china. He lost his father in 548 BC. In 519 BC, he started teaching ancient rituals to the sons of ministers. He fled to the neighboring state with Prince of Lu in 517 BC. In 500 BC, he was appointed as the Minister of Justice of Lu state. 5 years later he left his post and the state of Lu. 18 years later, he returned to the state of Lu. Not too long after, in 479 BC, he died in the state of Lu. Confucius impacted Chinese culture forever. His ultimate goal was to bring peace and happiness worldwide. His teachings will forever impact the intellect and character of all of China. | Confucianism

2: Confucianism dates back to early B.C. China. The religion itself is based on humanism. Humanism is basically the concept of believing in the power of mankind. One of the many beliefs that ties in with Confucianism is social harmony. This means that you, as an individual know where you belong in society and are in complete acceptance of it. Social harmony is being able to live side by side with anyone you may come across in peace. This is a goal that every Confucian strives for most. The Confucian social philosophy revolves around the concept of "ofren". Ofren translates to compassion or loving others. When practicing this concept, it also ties in with depreciating yourself. Because of this concept, Confucians tend to work around other's feelings while still trying to stay in a content state of mind with themselves to keep peace. Today, Confucianism is mainly practiced in places such as China, Japan, Korea and Vietnam. Over six million people worldwide practice Confucianism. It used to be much more popular until communists came into power.

3: In Confucianism, there are 5 relationships to take into respect. Confucians strive to perfect these relationships before death. Relationship number one is ruler and subject. You are to show benevolence in your ruler and loyalty in ministers in subjects. This means that in order to achieve the goal of peace, you are to show great respect to those who have authority over you and you are to show the upmost loyalty to people who you have authority over. The second relationship is father and son. The father is to be kind to the son and the son is to show piety towards his father. The third relationship is husband and wife. The husband is supposed to act completely righteous and the wife is to completely obey her husband. The fourth relationship is oldest son and younger brothers. The older brother is supposed to be gentile with his younger brothers and his younger brothers are to show humility and respect towards their older brothers. The fifth and final relationship is elders and juniors, speaking in terms of friends. Elders are to be considerate in younger people. Younger people are to show deference towards elders.“Good government consists in the ruler being a ruler, the minister being a minister, the father being a father, and the son being a son” (Lunyu 12.11)

4: Hinduism The Worlds Third Largest Religion | (From left to right) | Vishnu, the Protector, Brahma, the Creator, and Shiva, the Destroyer, the three principle gods of Hinduism that form the Trimurti.

5: Hinduism has a very long and interesting past to it. Certain elements of Hinduism have been found with relics from the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilization. Vedas, the oldest scripts In Hinduism, where discovered in these ruins of an old and abandoned world. | There are 4 Vedas, all teaching the earliest Hindu Principles. The Rigveda, Yajurveda and Sama veda are three out of the four of the Vedas, and are recited or sung by priests. Atharvaveda, the fourth Veda, is a collection of incantations and spells. These ancient scriptures are what shaped Hinduism into what we know it to be today. Sanskrit began flowering in The Mauryan period, and later became the main literary language of Hinduism. Upanishads are scripts thought to be the early source of Hinduism. More than 200 are known to exist, and of these, the first 12 are the most important. Passed down through oral tradition, the scripts have several dozen different authors, and each seems to attempt to teach a Hindu moral or belief. | Fun Fact: The Swastika is used in Hinduism to represent Vishnu, more specifically the rays of the sun. It wasn't until WWII that the symbol was associated with the Nazi Party; both have completely separate meanings. | History

6: The stories in the Hindu epic poetry are cannon to the religious views of Hinduism. Two of the most famous poems, Ramayana and Mahabharata have versions that appear in other languages and cultures. They are considered sacred, and were originally written in Sanskrit. | Epic poetry | Ramayana The Basic idea behind the epic legion Ramayana is to express the idle ways of living, whether it be a king, wife, husband, ect. Rama, the seventh avatar (reincarnation) of Vishnu, is the main Protagonist, as the vile demon Ravan is the main Antagonist. | Mahabharata The idea behind the epic legion Mahabharata is to explain the Kurukshetra War, as well as to explain the fates of the Kaurava and the Pandava. It also details the "Four Goals of Life, the four being dharma (right action), artha (purpose), kama (pleasure), and moksha (liberation), the four also being key principles in Hinduism today.

7: Reincarnation, Karma and Dharma The concept of reincarnation, that is, being reborn into a new body after death, is one of the strongest beliefs in Hinduism. Reincarnation occurs after death, and is determined by Karma, an energy built up during life. Karma is based on ones actions, bad karma is built on bad actions, as good karma is built on good actions. A Caste System is observed in large groups of Hindu followers, and is a social system of worship. If someone is good in the current system position they are in now, they will get reborn into a new, higher position in their next life, deceiving both more privileges and power, as well as getting closer to the ultimate goal of reuniting with Brahma. Dharma is known as the universal principal and law. It is said that dharma isn't a moral or a truth, it is pure reality. This idea is that the universe and everything in it is kept in balance by truth, law harmony and order. This concept first sprang from the idea of rta, and it directly relates to karma and reincarnation, as if one doesn't follow dhama, one cant possibly become one with Brahma. As reuniting with the Bhraman could take anywhere from one to several lifetimes, two forms of exercise have been created to encounter him in ones current life. Meditation and Yoga are these exercises. Both have mainly the same goal, which is to achieve full tranquility and bodily piece. In doing so, one enters a form of nirvana that unites them with the Brahman.

8: Influences on America | Hinduism - Hinduism, tough being the third largest religion in the world, is mainly still observed in India. It can be practiced at a place of worship or at home. Yoga, meditation and other practices such as rituals are done for many reasons within the religion itself to increase karma and to please the Brahman. Only about 0.5% of the United States population practices Hinduism, and before the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, it was virtually non-existent in the U.S.

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