FC: Second Language Acquisition Edgewood College 2011 | by Miwa Grajkowski-Blas
1: This book is intended to be a resource for teachers, specifically teachers of English Language Learners. My hope is that in addition to providing knowledge and resources, this will spark reflection, conversation, and collaboration. As the population of ELLs grow in our classrooms, teachers need to reflect on their teaching and language. Teachers are full of great ideas. Think of how many ideas could be shared and expanded with collaboration!
2: My Instructional Environment I am a Special Education teacher at two elementary schools in Verona, WI. Sugar Creek Elementary has about 500 students, with approximately 110 bilingual students. About 100 of Sugar Creek's students come from households where Spanish is the primary language. Students in grades K-3 are educated in Spanish and English, with English becoming more prevalent with each advanced grade. Fourth and 5th grades are taught in English, with ELL support for those who need it. In addition to the English speaking staff at Sugar Creek Elementary, there is an ELL Teacher (Spanish), a bilingual resource teacher (Spanish), three native Spanish speaking education aides, two Spanish speaking special education aides (1 is a native speaker), a native Spanish speaking Guidance Counselor, and a secretary who also speaks Spanish. Depending on the class, number of students, English
3: proficiency, etc., support is sometimes given to students in the classroom and sometimes students are pulled into the resource room. The other school I teach at is New Century Charter School. New Century has a predominantly white student population. There are a handful of ELLs. ELL support is shared with Sugar Creek Elementary. The Verona Area School District is in the process of training teachers in SIOP.
5: Erik - 2nd grader whose family is from Mexico. Spanish is the primary language spoken at home. Erik has autism. He was first evaluated by the school district at age 28 months. He has a brother in 4th grade. Jennifer - 2nd grader, Spanish is the primary language spoken at home. Jennifer has a learning disability in reading and writing. She also gets speech and language services. She has two younger brothers not yet in school. Carlos - 5th grader, Spanish is the primary language spoken at home. Carlos has a learning disability in math and reading. He has a brother in 2nd grade. Jose - 5th grader, Spanish is the primary language spoken at home. Jose has a learning disability in reading and writing. He also gets speech and language services. Jose has two younger sisters, one in 3rd grade and one in kindergarten. A translator is provided for parent/teacher meetings.
6: First and Second Language Acquisition Theories | To be a more effective teacher, it is important to be familiar with the different language acquisition theories. No one theory is the best or right theory. Every student is different and learns differently. Being familiar with the different language acquisition theories and reflecting on them will help when planning curriculum.
7: First Language Acquisition Theories: Innatist Perspective: Universal Grammer -Chomsky believes that there is a critical period in which all children innately learn their first language. Connectionism -Learners learn language by being exposed to it. -Environment plays a large role in learning language. Competition Model -Model proposed for both first and 2nd language acquisition -Closely related to Connectionism -Based on the thought that learners do not need to be explicitly taught language. Learners learn how to use a language and how it functions from being exposed it.
9: Second Language Theories: Krashen, Monitor Model -Five hypotheses - Acquisition-learning hypotheses; Monitor hypotheses; Natural order hypothesis; Input hypotheses; Affective filter hypothesis Information Processing -Initially learners pay attention to what they are trying to understand or produce and let go things such as grammar. As they practice and get comfortable with the practiced language, they can devote time to learn other aspects of the language. Interaction Hypothesis -Conversations in the second language is extremely important, if not sufficient, in learning the 2nd language. Noticing Hypothesis -To learn language, it has to be noticed. Just noticing is not enough to learn, but it is the important starting point. Sociocultural Perspective -Speaking and thinking are connected. To learn a second language, one has to engage in both in the 2nd language.
10: WIDA CAN DO Descriptors: A Cool Tool! | - Support classroom teachers by giving them information on the language students are able to understand and produce in the classroom. - Suggest language goals to be incorporated into IEPs for ELLs with diagnosed disabilities. - Can be used to report progress to parents and other staff in the areas of reading, listening, speaking, and writing. - Can be used to develop or co-develop lessons and units of study with differentiated language objectives. | http://www.wida.us/
11: Erik - 2nd grader whose family is from Mexico. Spanish is the primary language spoken at home. Erik has autism. He was first evaluated by the school district at age 28 months. He has a brother in 4th grade. See previous page for ACCESS scores. | Jennifer - 2nd grader, Spanish is the primary language spoken at home. Jennifer has a learning disability in reading and writing. She also gets speech and language services. She has two younger brothers not yet in school. See previous page for ACCESS scores. | Task #1: Students will be given story pages illustrated with Piggie and Gerald, but with no text. Students will be asked to create his/her own story by adding speech bubbles to Piggie and Gerald. Task #2: Students will be asked to share their stories aloud. They will be put into groups of two. In their pairs they will each take a character (Piggie or Gerald) and read/perform that part when sharing with the class. | Since Erik is still learning how to write, he will dictate his speech bubbles to his teacher to scribe. Due to his young age and autism, creativity and speech is not at grade level. He will be asked to produce a story based on what the characters are doing, i.e. "Hi," "I am reading," "I have a ball, "etc. | Jennifer will be given a page with ideas to choose from. The idea page will include a word bank and sentence starters. She will review the ideas page with ELL teacher first. | Before writing, we will read several Pigge and Gerald books as a class. Piggie and Gerald books will be available for student to read during DEAR time and free choice. After the students finish their stories, they will practice reading/performing their stories together before sharing with the class.
12: Building Background Knowledge for ELLs | Building background knowledge is important to activate what students already know and make connections to what they are learning. | Useful websites: Comprehensive Approach to Building Background Knowledge Through Strategic Vocabulary Instruction, http://www.eup.k12.mi.us/60891062063117407/lib/60891062063117407/Vocab_Model.pdf Colorín Colorado, http://www.colorincolorado.org/educators/content/lessonplan/ ESOL Oddysey, http://publicschoolteachersodyssey.blogspot.com/2011/05/building-background-knowledge-prior-to.html Building Background Knowledge for Academic Achievement, http://www.wjcc.k12.va.us/content/programs/staffdevelopment/CITW/PDFs/051508-BUIDLING%20BACKGROUND%20KNOWLEDGE.pdf
13: This graphic organizer has questions for students to answer as they read. It is organized where every question is a paragraph. There are also sentence starters.
16: Supporting Academic Reading for ELLs | This is my reading domain grid. I realize that I did not differentiate for language. On the next page is a graphic organizer that I could have used with the entire class, while differentiating for language.
17: This graphic organizer could be used with Level 1 students. Level 2 students could use the same organizer, but with pictures and words. Level 3 students could use the same graphic organizer with words only. Level 4 students could use the same organizer with a word bank that includes extra terms. Level 5 students could use the same organizer but without a word bank.
18: Supporting ELLs within Writing | It is important that students write about something they have some background knowledge of. Do not assume that students know how to write academically. A student may be able to talk well, but struggle with writing. Model how you think about writing. Model how you edit. Let students practice. Show examples of good writing. Point out the connection of writing and printed materials; of writing and reading.
20: Creating a language learning rich environment | To create a learning rich environment: Strategically seat students within the classroom. Seat students by classmates who will engage in academic talk. Have a word wall. Have the class collect cognates on note cards and keep them on a ring. Encourage conversation. Give constructive feedback on content, not how spoken. Have a warm and inviting atmosphere that celebrates diversity and learning.