FC: Virginia History Created By: Ashley Hagan
1: Primary vs Secondary Sources | Primary Sources: Speeches, artifacts, music, interviews, and other original items are Primary Sources. | Secondary Sources: Newspapers, atlases, dictionaries, encyclopedias, and other duplicated items are Secondary Sources.
2: BORDERING STATES & LARGE BODIES OF WATER | BORDERING STATES Maryland, West Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, and North Carolina are the five states that border Virginia. | LARGE BODIES OF WATER The Atlantic Ocean and Chesapeake Bay are the large bodies of water that border Virginia.
3: THE FIVE REGIONS | The five regions of Virginia are the Coastal Plain, Piedmont, the Blue Ridge Mountains, Valley and Ridge, and the Appalachian Plateau.
4: Cities and Rivers | City River Alexandria Potomac Fredricksburg Rappahanock Yorktown York Richmond & Jamestown James
5: Artifacts and Archaeologists | Artifacts are old objects that archaeologists use to study the past. | Archaeologists are the people who study artifacts to learn about the past. | Arrowheads are an example of an artifact.
6: EASTERN WOODLAND INDIANS | Werowocomoco was the Indian trade site. Their food, shelter, and clothing varied by season. | Rabbit and deer was eaten during spring and summer. It might have been traded with colonists.
7: VIRGINIA INDIAN TRIBES | Tribe Language Region Powhatan Algonquian Tidewater Monacan Siouan Piedmont Cherokee Iroquoian Appalachian Plateau
8: Reasons for choosing Jamestown | It would increase England's wealth and power. They had defense against enemies approaching them. There was a deep harbor, and they thought it had a good supply of fresh, clean, drinking water.
9: Hardships at Jamestown | There were four main hardships. 1. starvation 2. lack of clean water 3. disease 4. Indians
10: Important people at Jamestown | There were five important people at Jamestown. 1. Christopher Newport led the economic venture to Jamestown. 2. Captain John Smith began trading relationships with the Powhatan Indians. 3. John Rolfe introduced a better-tasting tobacco to the Jamestown colony that was popular in England. It soon became the cash crop. 4. Pocahontas was the daughter of the Chief Powhatan. She was sent on behalf of the Powhatan to meet the settlers. 5. Chief Powhatan was the Powhatan leader and the father of Pocahontas and he sent her to meet the settlers.
11: Government | King James granted a charter that allowed the colonists to start a representative form of government. They started it in 1619. The representatives were called burgesses. In 1643, the burgesses formed their own branch of the government, called the Virginia House of Burgesses.
12: Capital Move | The capital moved from Jamestown to Williamsburg because Williamsburg had higher elevation than Jamestown. It then moved from Williamsburg to Richmond because it was a more central location and population was moving westward
13: The King made the colonists pay for the war. The British fought the French and the Indians. The colonists had to pay them $130,00,00 debt! | The French and Indian War
14: -The Stamp Act taxed all paper goods and stamps. -The Sugar Act taxed all products made with sugar. -The Townshend Acts taxed all imports. | Taxes
15: Problems in Boston | In the Boston Massacre, 5 people were killed. | In the Boston Tea Party, the Sons of Liberty dumped 342 crates of tea into the Boston Harbor. | The Sons of Liberty were important patriots. | Patriots are people who defend their country.
16: Colonists vs England | -Loyalists -King George the 3rd -Lord Cornwallis | -Patriots -Sons of Liberty -Colonists -Minute men
17: Important Patriots | James A.. Lafayette was a spy for the Continental Army. | George Washington was Commander-in-Chief for the Continental Army. | Patrick Henry gave the famous speech "... give me liberty or give me death"
18: Important Patriots | Thomas Jefferson was the key author of the Declaration of Independence. | Jack Jouett was called the "Paul Revere of the south" because of his midnight ride to Monticello to warn political leaders that the British were coming. | Paul Revere warned everybody that the British were coming. | Benjamin Franklin caused the French to help the colonists in the American Revolution.
19: American Indians were promised that the colonies would stop pushing the off their land. | African slaves were divided in war. Great Britain promised the slaves their freedom. | Divided in War
20: Support on the Home Front | Women supported the troops by caring for the sick and wounded and their making clothes. They also farmed.
21: Battles | Battle of Great Bridge was the first land battle in Virginia. | The Battle of Lexington and Concord was the shot heard around the world. It started the American Revolution. | The Battle of Yorktown was the last battle of the American Revolution. The British surrendered to the Americans, ending the war.
22: Treaty of Paris ended the American Revolution | The British surrendered at Yorktown, but the war was not officially over until both sides signed the Treaty of Paris.
23: Contributions to a New Nation | George Washington was the 1st President of the U.S. He is known as the "Father of Our Country". | James Madison took detailed notes and he compromised. He was the 4th President of the United States. He is also known as the "Father of the Constitution. | Thomas Jefferson wrote the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom. He was the 3rd President. | George Mason wrote the Virginia Declaration of Rights.. The Virginia Declaration of Rights. influenced the Bill of Rights.
24: Farming tobacco took nutrients out of the soil. Without nutrients, plants won't be able to grow. This made the Virginians move west to find better farm land. | Virginians Travel South and West to Find Better Farm Land
25: -Legislative Branch makes laws. Made up of House of Delegates and the Senate. -Executive Branch carries out laws. Governor is in charge. -Judicial Branch enforces laws. This leads the court system. | Branches of Virginia's Government
26: Famous Abolitionists | Harriet Tubman was an escaped slave that used the Underground Railroad to help over 300 slaves get to freedom in the North. She traveled on the Underground Railroad 19 times. Nat Turner lead a slave rebellion, killing over over 60 white people John Brown lead a raid on a Harpers Ferry Arsenal in Harpers Ferry, VA. His plan was to start a slave rebellion. He was captured and hung. | Nat Turner was born a slave. He escaped and lead a slave rebellion, killing over 60 white people in Southampton County, Virginia. After 6 weeks of hiding in the woods, he was captured and hung. | Harriet Tub,man was an escaped slave in Maryland who used the Underground Railroad to make 19 trips to the North, freeing over 300 slaves. | John Brown lead a raid on Harpers Ferry, Virginia on a rainy day. Shortly after, he was captured and hung.
27: Divided Nation: Differences between the North and South | The North was industrialized. It had factories and machines and did not need slaves. They were not skilled military men but, had a large population. | The South relied on slaves. The people there were trained horsemen and military men They had a small population.
28: Creation of West Virginia | The Union was against slavery. The South, where slaves were used, seceded and formed the Confederacy. The western counties in Virginia wanted to stay in the Union, so they seceded to form West Virginia.
29: Union | The Union's President was Abraham Lincoln. | The Commander-in-Chief of the Union Army was Ulysses S. Grant.
30: The only president of the Confederacy was Jefferson Davis. | Confederacy | General Lee led the army of Northern Virginia.
31: J.E.B. Stuart lead the calvary. | Confederacy | Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson earned his nickname "Stonewall" when he stood like a stonewall at the Battle of Bull Run.
32: Important Battles | Beware ( Bull Run ) My ( Monitor & Merrimack ) Foot ( Fredericksburg ) Can ( Chancellorville ) Punt ( Petersburg ) Red ( Richmond ) Apples ( Appomattox Courthouse )
33: Confederacy Surrenders at Appomattox Courthouse | General Lee surrenders to General Grant at the Wilmer McLean home at Appomattox Courthouse. This resulted in the Union's victory.
34: Problems faced in Virginia | Reconstruction: | Virginians faced many problems during Reconstruction. Their Confederate bills were worthless, banks were destroyed along with land and houses. | Confederate bill
35: Reconstruction: Sharecropping and Freedman's Bureau | Freedman's Bureau was a government agency that helped freed slaves and poor whites get food, medicine, and education. Sharecropping was when farmers used credit (buy now, pay later) to share farmland and get some of the profit.
36: After Reconstruction | Segregation was when races were separated. Discrimination was an unfair difference in people's treatment. Jim Crow Laws that established segregation and reinforced white people's prejudices.
37: Railroads were key to expansion, helping small towns brow into big cities. The cities had more factories and jobs. Factories created many needed jobs in the (now industrialized) South. Tazewell county was a major coal mining area. Tobacco farming made money, as it was crop that people loved. | Virginia's Economy Begins to Grow Again
38: Civil Rights Movement | Thomas Woodrow Wilson won a Nobel Peace Prize. He wrote a plan for world peace. | George Marshall wrote an economic plan for world peace. It was called the Marshall Plan. He earned the Nobel Peace Prize.
39: Civil Rights Movement | Maggie Walker started the St. Luke Penny Saving Bank. She was the first colored woman to open a bank or become a bank president. | Harry F. Byrd, Sr. created the "Pay as you go" policy for road improvements. He started a massive resistance against integration. | Arthur Ashe was the first African-American tennis player to win a major tennis championship. He was an author for social change. | Douglas Wilder was the first black governor in Virginia. | Oliver Hill was a lawyer that played a key roll in the court case Brown Vs. Board of Education. | Linwood Holton, Sr. gave African Americans and women jobs in the government. He was for race equality.
40: 20th and 21th Century V.A | Virginia's economy changed from rural to urban as technological advancements came. Old methods in farming were no longer effective. Urban areas offered jobs. Crop prices lowered because it was a lot easier to produce crops. Virginia's transportation system developed with highways, railroads, waterways, and air transportation. Tourism is a major part of Virginia's economy, with rolling hills, beaches, hiking, biking, skiing, apple-picking, mountains, valleys, and ridges.