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FC: Slave Trade Project

1: The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade began around the mid-fifteenth century when Portuguese interests in Africa moved away from the fabled deposits of gold to a much more readily available commodity slaves. By the seventeenth century the trade was in full swing, reaching a peak towards the end of the eighteenth century.

2: Expanding European empires in the New World lacked one major resource -- a work force. In most cases the indigenous peoples had proved unreliable and Europeans were unsuited to the climate and suffered under tropical diseases. Africans, on the other hand, were excellent workers: they often had experience of agriculture and keeping cattle, they were used to a tropical climate, resistant to tropical diseases, and they could be "worked very hard" on plantations or in mines.

3: It is estimated that by the early 16th century as much as 10 per cent of Lisbon's population was of African descent

4: The Spanish took the first African captives to the Americas from Europe as early as 1503, and by 1518 the first captives were shipped directly from Africa to America. The majority of African captives were exported from the coast of West Africa, some 3,000 miles between what is now Senegal and Angola, and mostly from the modern Benin, Nigeria and Cameroon.

5: Relations between the Europeans and the local populations were often strained, and distrust led to frequent clashes. Disease caused high losses among the Europeans engaged in the slave trade, but the profits realized from the trade continued to attract them. | The growth of anti-slavery sentiment among Europeans made slow progress against vested African and European interests that were reaping profits from the traffic. Although individual clergymen condemned the slave trade as early as the seventeenth century, major Christian denominations did little to further early efforts at abolition. | The Quakers, however, publicly declared themselves against slavery as early as 1727. Later in the century, the Danes stopped trading in slaves; Sweden and the Netherlands soon followed. The importation of slaves into the United States was outlawed in 1807. In the same year, Britain used its naval power and its diplomatic muscle to outlaw trade in slaves by its citizens and to begin a campaign to stop the international trade in slaves.

6: These efforts, however, were not successful until the 1860s because of the continued demand for plantation labor in the New World. Because it took decades to end the trade in slaves, some historians doubt that the humanitarian impulse inspired the abolitionist movement. According to historian Walter Rodney, for example, Europe abolished the trans-Atlantic slave trade only because its profitability was undermined by the Industrial Revolution. | Rodney argues that mass unemployment caused by the new industrial machinery, the need for new raw materials, and European competition for markets for finished goods are the real factors that brought an end to the trade in human cargo and the beginning of competition for colonial territories in Africa. Other scholars, however, disagree with Rodney, arguing that humanitarian concerns as well as social and economic factors were instrumental in ending the African slave trade.

7: Sources used: http://www.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/history/slave-trade.php http://africanhistory.about.com/od/slavery/tp/TransAtlantic001.htm http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/abolition/africa_article_01.shtml

8: There is something of the marvelous in all things of nature. -Aristotle

13: Never a day passes but that I do myself the honor to commune with some of nature's varied forms. -George Washington Carver

15: Go and walk with Nature; thou wilt find Full many a gem in her enchanted cup. -Isaac McLellan

20: As long as I live, I'll hear waterfalls and birds and winds sing. I'll interpret the rocks, learn the language of flood, storm, and the avalanche. I'll acquaint myself with the glaciers and wild gardens, and get as near the heart of the world as I can. -John Muir

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  • Title: White Portfolio
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