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World History Project

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World History Project - Page Text Content

S: Anna P. and Rayne B. --- World History Wrap-Up 2011 --- Liberty High School

FC: World History Wrap-Up | By: Anna P. and Rayne B.

1: Table of Contents: Ancient River Valley...............................................................................2 Ancient River Valley - What if?..................................................3 Classical Greece/Rome ......................................................................4 Classical Greece/Rome - What if?...........................................5 Post-Classical Africa/Asia................................................................ 6 Post-Classical Africa/Asia - What if?.....................................7 Post-Classical (Medieval)....................................................................8 Post-Classical (Medieval) - What if?.......................................9 Renaissance/Reformation................................................................10 Renaissance/Reformation - What if?...................................11 Enlightenment/Revolutions.............................................................12 Enlightenment/ Revolutions - What if?..............................13 World War I..................................................................................................14 World War ! - What if?.....................................................................15 World War II................................................................................................16 World War II - What if?...................................................................17 Cold War.........................................................................................................18 Cold War - What if?............................................................................19

2: The earliest civilizations in Mesopotamia organized into city-states, or independent countries. Polytheism, or the belief in many gods, was a common idea. The Egyptians created a type of government called theocracy, where the ruler was considered sacred. The Indus Valley civilization had complex city planning. The Shang dynasty brought china strong social classes. The Zhou developed the Mandate of Heaven, which gave the ruler divine rights. | Ancient River Valley Civilization

3: If people had not learned how to farm, they would have continued to use hunting and gathering techniques. Without agriculture, society would have developed differently and not have relied so heavily on the economy. People would have had to find other ways of making money because everyone began using agriculture to sell crops for a profit. The Industrial Revolution never would have happened, since it used agriculture to have a faster way of production.

4: In 2000B.C people began to settle in the mainland of Greece, they were known as Mycenaens. They were involved in the Trojan War which was a ten year war fought between Troy and the Mycenaen king. Two cities inside of Greece were Sparta and Athens. Both considered polis' (city-state), but both had totally different ways of life. Sparta had a strong military, men were trained from birth and women did nothing but house work. Athens was a direct democracy (ruled by the people) where people participated in everyday decision making, but only free men counted as citizens. Rome was a great empire that spread from one little part of Europe to almost all of it. It was a monarchy and introduced Christianity to the world, they collapsed however from inflation (a darastic drop in the value of money coupled with a rise in prices). From this era came social classes from Plato: third, farmers and artisans, second, warriors, first, ruling class, also from this era came astronomy, physics, and mathematics. | Classical Greece/Rome

5: If Rome did not fall then we would have not gone into the dark ages. We would be further along in todays technology and Christianity would have spread further than just the European hemisphere. Architecture would be more advanced with stronger more well built buildings that would withstand more natural forces. No lack of intelligence would have come along to take us further back in discovery. We as students would know more than what we do now, but because of the fall of the Roman Empire, we were held back from making all of this possible.

6: Africa during the post-classical time period was filled with new inventions and logical ideas. Homo erectus were first found in East Africa. They developed technology (inventions to meet their needs). Tools made for digging, scraping, cutting and hunting were developed. Once humans came about the Neolithic Revolution sparked (shift from food gathering to food producing). This allowed more countries to provide themselves with basic crops and animals. In Africa the Nile River Valley turned into an agricultural center for wheat, barely, and other crops. In Asia, Assyria was a thriving force that had a highly glorified military force whose soldiers were well equipped for conquering an empire. Assyria expanded defeating Syria, Palestine and Babylonia. They thrived by destroying and killing many innocent citizens. In Asia, Buddhism was introduced which is all about achieving nirvana (release from selfishness and pain), you follow an eightfold path which will help accomplish nirvana and also you followed four noble truths. Asia and Africa held responsible roles in todays functioning society. | Post-Classical Africa/Asia

7: The Bantu Migrations were one of the greatest migrations in history, which is when bantu-speaking people moved southward through Africa spreading their language and culture. They soon expanded Southern African population because of the introduction of agriculture as a substitute for hunting and gathering to make life easier. With out these migrations, agriculture would have never been spread further than a few locations in the Middle East, Africa and Europe. People wouldn't have learned about intermarriage (marrying a race other than your own) which allowed us to share cultures and languages. We would have struggled to supply food for growing populations and languages wouldn't have been changed to create all of the languages of today.

8: Reforms in the Roman Catholic Church swept across Europe. Gothic, a new type of church architecture, developed in Cathedrals. Pope Urban II issued a Crusade, or a holy war to gain control of the holy lands from the Muslims. Agriculture and Trade developed in European cities. They created the three field system, where farmers could grow crops on 2/3 of their land instead of 1/2. In England, the Magna Carta was approved by King John, and guarenteed basic political rights. The Bubonic Plague spread through Europe, killing 1/3 of the population. | Post-Classical (Medieval) Europe

9: If the Black Plague did not attack Europe, 1/3 of its population would have been spared. The Jews who were blamed for the Plague by poisoning the wells. There wouldnt have been as durastic of a change in attitudes toward religion and state. If the Plague had never struck, the changes in Medieval society would not have happened as quickly.

10: The Renaissance, or rebirth of learning and the arts, began in Northern Italy. Humanism, where thinkers studied classic texts and focused on human achievements, was one idea developed during the Renaissance. During this time, many women writers became famous. Gutenberg invented the printing press, which transfers writing into books using movable type. Protestant churches were founded due to Martin Luthers protest over abuses in the Catholic Church. His actions also began the Reformation, a movement for religious reform. | Renaissance/Reformation

11: The printing press is a machine that presses paper against a tray full of inked movable type. This invention produced the first complete Bible, allowing them to produce it in large numbers and in many languages. New ideas began to spread faster and educational books were produced in larger amounts. Literacy rates went up also, so without this invention we would have lower intelligence and religious idea wouldn't be shared in so many ways. Education would be low and very expensive because teachers who could read the material would be limited and the amount of books for students would be very slim and limited as well. The printing press led to the Enlightenment, so without it we would not know how the sun is the center of the universe, that the earth does spin, that humans deserve natural rights, discover the laws of gravity or be provided with medicine so frequently. The Gutenburg printing press is an invention that would change the world if never brought up.

12: Humans at very early years thought they had discovered all and invented all that could be done. The scientific revolution and the industrial revolution are two revolutions that proved them wrong, and along with those came the Enlightenment, the world changed. The scientific revoltion was a new way of thinking about the natural world. In this revolution came Galileo Galilei's discovery of the law of the pendulum due to a swinging chandalier, or Copernicus' theory (also known as the helocentric theory) that the sun is the center of the universe, or Isaac Newtons laws of motion. Also along with this came the scientific method, which is a logical procedure for gathering and testing ideas, this was used by Francis Bacon and Rene Descartes. The Industrial Revolution was an introduction of mass production in factories and in farming. Things invented include Jethro Tull's seed drill, James Watt's cotton gin, Robert Fulton's steam engine, John McAdam's roads and railroads. Everything became urbanized and populations sky rocketed. Migrations came in large numbers, but living conditions decreased as well as pay and farming lands. The Enlightenment was the age of reason (this occured before the Industrial revolution). From this age emerged John Locke's natural rights, where he believed everyone is born with the three basic rights, life, liberty and property, Montesquieu's idea of seperation of powers (division of power equally among 3 branches), or Jean Jacques Rousseau's laws and books of law that influence us still today. From the era came many idea that expanded to create the society we see today. | Enlightenment/Revolutions

13: So what if the Industrial Revolution had started in Russia or Germany? Germany is not, and has never been our ally, so they would probably not share their technological advances. Therefore our society would not be as advanced, we would have got an even later start than what we did to began with. If Russia however would have before us, than maybe they would have shared some of the ideas, but for the most part, the would have become the most powerful country in the world. They were already known as a European power house and if they were to take those ideas from us than we would be ruled by them today still, like how the United States is the country all others dislike for the most part. Also, we would not have gotten cars, we may still be walking today, and cars are very important to spreading culture, and ideas amongst the United States. We depend on our technology and factories to keep our daily lives up to par, with out our country being the first to make the discoveries our lives may have been completely different.

14: World War I began with an assassination of Austria-Hungary's Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife. In 1914 World War I breaks out in Europe between The Central Powers, Germany and Austria-Hungary, and the Allies, Great Britain, France, and Russia (Japan and Italy later joined). In 1915 Allies and Central Powers went head to head in a battle at Gallipoli in the Ottoman Empire, other battles include, Battles of Verdun and Somme (1916 in France), U.S enters war (1917), buy 1918 Russia withdrew from the war and signed a peace treaty with Germany. During World War one a new kind of tactic was introduced, Trench Warfare, which is when opposing sides dig deep parallel trenches miles wide to escape enemy fire. One of the bloodiest battles seen during World War I became known as the Western Front, a battle fought on the Battle fields of France. Germany had planned to make a quick attack on France, but instead it turned into a long blood bath. WWI ended in November 1918 when warring nations signed armistince (agreement to stop fighting), Allies came out with the win, also, the Treaty of Versailles was signed between the Allies and Germany, blaming Germany for the war, and limiting their rights.World War I became known as a total war, which is when countries devote all of their resources to the war effort.

15: The Treaty of Versailles was a treaty signed between the Allies and Germany, that basically blamed Germany for the start of World War I, it also put down major restrictions on Germany, including Germany surrenders to all of its overseas colonies in Africa and the Pacific, they are forbidden to build or buy submarines or have an air force, also they had to pay the Allies $33 billion in reparations over 30 years. If Germany had not been blamed and restricted as they were, World War II would have never began. It was a riot, lead by Adolf Hitler, that embraced the idea of not acknowledging the Treaty of Versailles, they became the Nazi's. No Holocaust would have ever came around, Jews wouldn't have vanished by the millions, Japan wouldn't have become our enemy, D-day (American soldiers invade Russia to end killings of Jews) would have never had to have been planned. We wouldn't be in so much debt due to war expenses and Hitler would have never come into power over a nation.

16: After being blamed for World War I, an angry Germany comes into European power. Hitler had began a raging mob, known as the Nazi's. War broke out in 1939, when Germany invaded Poland. Germany then gained France, and were defeated in their battle over Great Britain. The United States entered the war when Japan bombed Pearl Harbor. The Allies defeated Japan at the Battle of Guadalcanal, Nazi's ran the concentration camps, where the Jews lived in Ghettos, or segregated Jewish areas. Hitlers Final Solution was genocide, the killing of a race. The war ended in 1945 after Germany surrendered and the United States dropped two atomic bombs on Japan.

17: If the United States had not dropped the atomic bombs on Japan, the war wouldn't have ended. The Japanese most likely would have ended up attacking the United States, again. This would have lead to the United States being put behind in development, due to the fact that Japan would have wreaked our soil, and the United States would be swimming in even MORE debt than what we are currently in. It may have ended up in World War III as well because the United States would have been blamed for something, or Japan for attacking, and it would be like Germany's rebel on the Allies at the end of World War I. History would not have panned out to be the same, if the United States had not taken that extra step and forced Japan into a surrender.

18: The Cold War was a war that involved absolutely no fire from either side involved. Threats were made to the opposing sides but never accomplished. Such as, July 1962, Khrushchev began to secretly build 42 missile sites in Cuban territory, the United States took this as a treat. October 1962, America sent in a spy plane and spotted the missile sites in Cuba (Cuban Missile Crisis). President John F. Kennedy saw this as a huge threat and demanded that the Soviets remove the missiles, and so they did. The Cold War consisted of an arms race, which is when one country makes a weapon, their enemy must make it bigger and better than the one of their enemy, but through this, not one weapon was actually fired. Their was also the space race, which is when the Soviets and the United States were going head to head to be the first on the moon successfully. Many trial and errors occurred during this race, but the United States ended up coming out strong. The Cold War soon ended in 1945 when all of the countries came to an agreement to be neutral, once again.

19: If the Soviet Union had leaded on the moon first their flag would have been posted their, not the United States flag, they would most likely put them ahead in technology. The United States would have been driven to get further ahead, creating better technology faster. The Soviet Union would have been known for winning the Space Race.

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