S: The Reform Movement
BC: "5 Stars!" - History Channel | "Amazing book and easy read!" - David M. Kennedy | "Very Informational" - Mr. Bryant | The all-you-need-to-know guide to the reform movements in the 1800s. From education to women's rights. You will find it here!
FC: The Reform Movement | By: Ali Kotze
1: Abolitionists | The abolitionists believed that slavery was unholy and wished to get rid of it. They also thought slavery was and is cruel and morally wrong. Many had their own reasons as well
2: Fredrick Douglass | He was a slave that had escaped. He believed knowledge was the key to freedom and wrote the Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass. He lectured widely against slavery, even though he would get beatings from whites. He wanted to get rid of slavery through politics and he played a major part in abolishing slavery.
3: Nathaniel was a more drastic abolitionist that started a rebellion with 80 followers that attacked 4 plantations killing 60 whites. He was eventually executed. It caused tightened control over slavery but it lead to other small revolts. | Nathaniel Turner
4: William Lloyd Garrison | White man that promised to abolish slavery. He helped form the Anti-Slavery society in 1833. Garrison published in Boston the first issue of his antislavery newspaper: The Liberator. He would eat no cane sugar and wear no cotton cloth, since both were produced by southern slaves. Many of his campaigns failed and he encouraged the North to succeed from the "wicked" South.
5: The struggle for woman to achieve rights they deserve not only as American citizens but as people. It included the formation of the National American Woman Suffrage Association and eventually the passage of the nineteenth amendment to the Constitution, giving women the right to vote on August 26, 1920 almost a century later. | Women's Rights
6: Elizabeth Stanton and Lucretia Mott | s | Two woman that both helped in the women' right movement. Elizabeth Cady Stanton wrote the Declaration of Sentiment that copied the Declaration of Independence and wrote that all men and woman are created equal. They both held the Seneca Falls meeting in NY, which was the first nation wide meeting for women's rights. They fought for suffrage but never achieved it until years later.
7: Worked with Elizabeth Stanton with the first women's temperance movement. She also co-founded the women's rights journal, The Revolution and averaged 75 to 100 speeches per year. | Susan B. Anthony
8: Sojourner Truth | She was an outspoken African American woman that did jobs men could do. Her most famous speech was: Ain't I a Woman?, given in 1851 at a women's rights convention in Ohio. She fought especially hard for African Americans and ran a campaign against not allowing blacks to sit with whites on a train.
9: The religious movement was huge with the Second Great Awakening. It involved a lot of different branches of Christian faith and tolerance for many others. It spread throughout the entire country and offered people salvation and new views on the bible. It brought two new major branches: Methodist and Baptist. Both with different ways of worship. The feminization of religion was also a feature of the Second Great Awakening. Women where very enthusiastic about revivalism. | Religion
10: Charles Finney | Charles Finney was a influential revival preacher during the second great awakening. He conducted large emotional revivals and preached individuals ability to seek salvation. He led massive revivals in Rochester and New York City in 1830 and 1831. He also denounced slavery and alcohol.
11: He had the belief that man could be God-like and he denounced God, the father and the holy ghost. This inspired people to follow in God's footsteps and introduced new denominations. | William Channing
12: Joseph Smith | Young man from NY that said he was inspired by an angel and said man could live better if they follow God's beliefs. He created the Christian branch- Mormonism in Utah. Or in other words, the Church of Latter Day Saints.
13: Education became more important as time progessed due to the amount of fantastic inventions and innovations into the American culture. The religious revivals also played a very important part in the education of the people and how thing's where done. The education of children became more and more apparent to the people of the time. | Education
14: Horace Mann | Often referred to as the "Father of the Common School Movement". He was the first secretary of the newly created board of education of Massachusetts and first ever in America. He also wrote The Common School Journal and established teacher programs, curriculum reform, and doubled state spending.
15: Woman that opened a school for girls in Canterbury. She admitted an African American and was ridiculed. People wanted the black girl (Sarah Harris) out of the school. First they discussed it and eventually lead into threats and violence against the school forcing iher to close it down. | Prudence Crandall
16: Mary Lyon | She was an important reformer in women's education forming the Wheaton Female Seminary in Norton, Massachusetts, (now Wheaton College). Then she had Mount Holyoke Seminary built, which was the first female college. She made it affordable for socioeconomic diversity.
17: American literature was big in the 1800s. Their where many books written meant to capture American culture and stories. Many classical legends we still here about and read today. "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" written by Washington Irving and Moby Dick by Herman Melville are examples of this. | Literature/Art
18: Edgar Allen Poe | First suspense writer of America who was very dark in his writings. He was extremely unique and different compared to other writers at the time. He is very popular for his writing of The Raven, which we still read about today. Unfortunately he died at an early age.
19: Irving began writing at 17. He wrote about George Washington and Christopher Columbus. His two stories "Rip Van Winkle" and "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" where well known internationally. | Washington Irving
20: Herman Melville | Herman Melville was considered amongst many Americans as the first great novelist. He wrote the story of Moby Dick which was about a white whale attacking a whaling captain at sea. The captain wanting only revenge for the whale taking his leg. Moby Dick was not very popular at the time however. His first three books received much recognition and Typee recieved best seller.
21: Many of the reform movements where closely related, believe it or not. The Second Great Awakening in the early 1800s brought great minds like Charles Finney and Peter Cartwright who influenced the minds of thousands. Woman became more interested in speaking out towards what was right after hearing these speeches they worked toward their suffrage and rights to worship aloud. They gained more independence and worked for themselves outside of their houses. Men also became enlightened and invented such things as the cotton gin and the telegraph. With knew inventions came new education and technological advances. It made education more important so it became more funded and structured for the common people. Things like a good education gave artists and literary artists things to write about and taught them how to write. Which would eventually be the stories we know and love today. By learning one thing you learn another in this case. | Conclusion