S: Poe Family Adventure - Turkey 2010
BC: Some words we use in the English language that have Turkish roots: Baklava - Bulgur - Caravan - Kiosk - Ottoman Shish Kebab - Turquoise - Yogurt "Nedi-isms": Group: Can we do that? Nedi: Sure, why not. Come On? Really? Why? What are you doing? This will not be your only option! | POE CARVED IN STONE IN EPHESUS
FC: Turkey's Magical Hideaways - October 2010 Poe Family Adventure with Overseas Adventure Travel Istanbul - Kusadasi - Ephesus - Selcuk - Marmaris Mediterranean Cruise - Fetiye - Kas - Myra Antalya - Perge - Aspendos - Village Homestay Beysehir - Konya - Cappadocia
1: Turkey truly is a magical place. Our time there was amazing and filled with history, adventure, culinary delights, new friendships, and countless experiences. Come along as we explore Istanbul - Kusadasi - Ephesus - Selcuk - Marmaris - the Turkish Mediterranean on a gulet - Fetiye - Kas - Myra - Antalya - Perge - Aspendos - Village Homestay Beysehir - Cappadocia and many points in between.
2: October 17, 2010 Well, you can see what was important after arriving - beer. Our hotel is located in the old city and after meeting Nedi, our tour guide, and getting some pointers, we headed out to explore Istanbul. Nearby we have the Hagia Sofia (below, left), the Blue Mosque (below, right), Topkapi Palace, Bosphorus, Arasta Bazaar and an untold number of restaurants, shops and boutique hotels. Following dinner at the hotel recommended Turquoise Café, we decided on some shut-eye. (Unbeknown to the rest of the group, Joe Poe went out exploring. He found a whirling dervish show, but didn't stay long when he couldn't get a beer - too close to the Blue Mosque.
3: October 18, 2010 There are 3 couples with us: Sam & Bea from Washington state, Roger & Katie from Lake Tahoe, Jerry & Ida from the Tampa area. There are also 2 sisters traveling with us: Joyce from Seattle and Lois from Hawaii. The Turks originally came from the area of Mongolia and had Asian features. The Turkish language is very close to Korean. Because the original alphabet was so difficult to learn, Ataturk adopted the Roman characters for their alphabet in the 1920s to help improve literacy. Turkish is spoken all along the Silk Road, and while there is really only one Turkish language, in some areas, there are small differences and it may take some time to learn the subtle nuances. The differences are small compared to some language differences. | TOPKAPI PALACE Mehmet II built it in the mid 15th century following his conquest of Constantinople. This compound was to be his principle residence and served as the residence of the Ottoman sultans/emperors and their harem for more than 400 years. It was also initially the seat of government for the Empire and housed a school where the civil servants and soldiers were trained. The Palace was opened as a museum in 1924. The Grand Vizier presided over Parliament. The harem was overseen by the chief of the black eunuchs. Those 2 were the only ones allowed to speak to the emperor. Citizens of the Ottoman Empire had rights & responsibilities based on their religion. Muslims paid fewer taxes but the eldest son had to serve in the army. Non-Muslims paid more tax, but had no commitment to the army. Their eldest sons were sent to serve in the palace and be educated to become viziers, royal pages, Janissaries (soldiers), etc. The sultan's successor was typically the first born son. Most of the time he was away governing a territory when his father died. If the Janissary supported someone else, it became a "who could get there first and kill the other" to ascend to the throne.
4: TOPKAPI PALACE The tile work and stained glass at the place is amazing. The Bosphorus (below, left) forms one boundary of the palace.
6: GRAND BAZAAR With over 4000 shops, the Grand Bazaar can be very overwhelming. It is laid out like a department store, so if you could find your "area of interest", there were lots of opportunities to get a "special deal just for you". Unfortunately, we only had an hour to discover this wonderland, but as Nedi said for the first of many times - this will not be your only option.
7: CRUISING THE BOSPHOROUS As you can see, this boat was designed to hold hundreds of people but there were just 14 of us (including Nedi). We began in the Golden Horn and went under a very low bridge. Just after that bridge, we made a left turn to head north into the Bosphorus with Europe to the left, Asia to the right and Istanbul on both sides. The first suspension bridge we went under (left) was the first connecting Europe and Asia. It was designed and built by the British and christened in 1973 to coincide with the 50th anniversary of the Republic. Just past that we saw Cirigan Palace (middle, left) which was one of the last Ottoman princess's palace. The palace has been leased from the government for a defined number of years and turned into the Kempinski Hotel, one of the most luxurious in Istanbul.
8: Old vs. New (Not Michael & Morgan - HAHA) | There is a fortress on each side of the Bosphorus. The European fortress was built in 1452 by Mehmet the Conqueror as he began to prepare to conquer Constantinople. It is at the narrowest point of the Bosphorus to prevent the passage of foreign ships. Once Constantinople was captured in 1453, the fortress was turned into a prison. The fortress of Asia was built at the end of the 14th century just across the Bosphorus by Mehmet’s grandfather to defend Constantinople from the Venetians.
9: MOSQUE OF SULEYMAN THE MAGNIFICENT The Mosque of was closed for renovations, but we were able to wander through the cemetery as Nedi introduced us to Suleyman the Magnificent who took over in the mid 1500s when his father, Suleyman the Great died. STM was very powerful and had at least 2 wives. The first wife bore him a son, Mustafa, but his second wife was his true weakness. Roxelana, a Ukranian-born, ugly hunchback was very conniving and wanted her son to be sultan. She was able to convince her husband that Mustafa was plotting against him. STM was heartbroken, but had Mustafa killed. Many believe this was the beginning of the end of the Ottoman empire. Suleyman began soup kitchens and people liked to talk about how charitable he was. In reality, he had taxed the population into oblivion and he had to do something. The mosque dedicated to him is surrounded by what used to be a hospital, schools, a hostel, and the soup kitchen (that served over 1000/day, Christians, Muslims, & Jews). Random Facts: Turks built the first domed mosques. Muslims are buried on their side facing Mecca. | Tomb of Suleyman the Magnificent's Grand Vizier (below)
10: October 19, 2010 The Blue Mosque is first on the agenda, followed by the Hippodrome, Hagia Sofia, Spice Market & a walk down Istikal Street. The Blue Mosque is a tourist term that has stuck with the locals. It comes from the "blue" Iznik tiles that are throughout the building. Sultan Ahmet commissioned the imperial architect to design the building. He heard "6 minarets" instead of "gold minarets". Even though it was scandalous to have that many, the Sultan liked it so he let Mehmet Aga live. | BLUE MOSQUE Ablution Fountains (top, right)
11: THE HIPPODROME This chariot-racing stadium, thought to have held 100,000 spectators at its largest, was built by the Romans around 200AD. Only the upper half of one obelisk is remaining. It was built in Luxor in 1500BC and Constantine brought to this site during his reign. The "Million" (bottom, left) was the starting measurement by which all distances in the Roman Empire were made. The fountain (bottom, right) has a beautiful ceiling and served as the only source of water for lots of residents for many years.
12: HAGIA SOFIA Emperor Justinian, the Lawmaker, had the Hagia Sofia built across the street from the Hippodrome over the site of 2 churches more than 1400 years ago. Justinian's uncle passed the throne to him but not before building a vast eastern Roman empire. Justinian was a bachelor when his rule began, but an acrobat from the Hippodrome soon caught his eye. He & Theodora raised taxes tremendously and caused extreme poverty. In the middle of the 6th century, the people finally had enough. Over 30,000 people were killed in the riots that ensued. Justinian had the Hagia Sofia built soon after as a peace offering. The mosaics on the upper level (opposite - top, right and bottom, left) are amazing. Those pictured are just a small sample of what is there. The amount of time it must have taken to create each of those scenes is unbelievable. Also at the Hagia Sofia are 2 red granite columns (right) from the Temple of Artemis, one of the original Seven Wonders of the World, whose ruins are located near Ephesus.
14: SPICE MARKET This market was much more manageable than the Grand Bazaar, although it has food products primarily - sensory overload for sure! In addition to "people food", there was also a pet food market and a flower market. Clockwise from top left: Nuts, Turkish Delight & other sweets, honey, dried spices & peppers, fresh fish, olives.
15: TOP (l) deli (r) Turkish Delight MIDDLE ground spices BOTTOM (l) Turkish Delight (r) dried spices & "pharmaceuticals"
16: The Spice Market was a relaxing few hours after a very hectic morning. Lunch for most of us was probably sliced from what you see on this page. Morgan and Amy had already eaten the evidence by the time their picture was taken. The fresh fruits and veggies are amazing. On the opposite page you see snapshots from the pet food market (cats, dogs & birds) and the flower market. Tulips actually originated from Turkey, but even they now import them from the Netherlands.
18: ISTIKAL STREET This part of the Art Nouveau district and was busy during the day, but that pales in comparison to the night time activity (think Bourbon Street during Mardi Gras). We stopped for a rest and a beer or apple (tourist) tea. | TAKSIM SQUARE This is where the bus picked us up following our "discovery walk". Towards the end of our trip, there was a terrorist bombing here.
19: ISTANBUL AT NIGHT Michael was a little more experienced on the water pipe! | Sleep Quick EARLY day tomorrow!
20: October 20, 2010 Today we left Istanbul. Our flight to Izmir (modern day Smyrna) was early, but there's lots packed into the day starting with "a day in the life". We had lunch in the home of one of the village elders. Part were downstairs with him and his wife, and the other part were upstairs with their son, daughter-in-law and granddaughter. The elder used to farm tobacco, but the demand has lessened over the years so he now he keeps bees. His wife makes olive oil soap and sells it in the market in this and neighboring villages. Their son is a security guard at the Izmir prison, as | are many of the men in this and surrounding villages. His marriage was arranged as are approximately 65% in Turkey (divorce rate is <1% for them) . While he was in love with another girl from the village, because the families were of different Muslim sects, her family wouldn't permit it. His wife is from a southern village 12 hours away by bus. Their daughter was a typical 2 1/2 year old. Women have complete control over the homes and men typically aren't allowed there during the day. That's not a problem unless the men are retired. They typically go to the coffee shop and play tammam (pix next page), backgammon, and gossip. Up next - a visit to the school that Grand Circle supports.
21: Belenbasi village is small and only has an elementary school with 95 students. Buses take the students to larger, neighboring villages for middle and high school. These students aren't studying English yet, but their teacher had taught them to say, "Hello, how are you?" and "What is your name?" Someone in our group asked what each child wants to be when they grow up. The common answer among boys was policeman and among girls was teacher. Nedi told us that maybe 2-3 will "get out" of the village and be able to go to university. The girls demonstrated traditional Turkish dance before we left.
22: KISMET HOTEL IN KUSADASHI It was built and maintained by the daughter of the last of the Ottomans before Turkey declared its independence in the 1920s. She and her family were exiled but allowed to return years later. | If you are going to Ephesus, which we are tomorrow, this is the closest port. As a result, Kusadashi has become a major stop on the Mediterranean cruise circuit, as you can see from the view from Joe's room at the Kismet. Both pictures on the left are from his room. Kathryn & Morgan's room overlooked the Agean Sea - WOW!
23: October 21, 2010 EPHESUS The original city built in around 1000BC on this site was Greek and was not Ephesus. The city we see now was built in the 4th century BC and was one of the chief ports on the Aegean. This site is actually Ephesus III. The city kept moving to follow the harbor. Ephesus I and II are being excavated but because they built with mud bricks instead of marble, there won't be much that is salvaged. John spent 40 years here after his exile to Patmos. It is accepted that Mary, the mother of Jesus, spent her last days here as well with John looking after her. Paul also made 2 trips here. Ephesus was the 3rd richest city in the world behind Rome and Antioch. There are 3 sections to the city: Administrative (upper level), then Residential, which contained the baths, the brothel and shops in addition to homes. The Cultural area was in the lower area of the city and it contained the library (right across from the brothel), the coliseum and the commercial agora (marketplace). Ephesus was deserted after the 7th century when the harbor silted over and in the 1850s archaeologists began excavating. Only about 10% of the city has been uncovered and the work is ongoing – what treasures await discovery. The Romans were great architects and their arches enabled them to build anywhere, not just using hillsides. Ephesus was a central hub for all those traveling the Silk Road, as well as those bringing goods from Europe. Since the Silk Road wasn't very safe, merchants could leave any valuables, primarily gold, in the care of the bank. The bank kept things up to 10 years. If the owner hadn't claimed the items by then, ownership reverted to the bank. | Left: Library at Ephesus - originally 3 levels with 120,000 scrolls Right: Joe soaking in the sights of such an historic place.
24: Ephesus in a word WOW!
25: Top Left: Medusa at Hadrianus Temple Middle Left: Hadrianus Temple Bottom Left: Amy & Michael heading to the library Bottom: Kathryn & Morgan at The Hercules Gate Right: The theater at Ephesus was the largest Roman theater and was expanded in the 2nd century to a capacity of 24,000. This represented 1/10 of the population of the city (only men were counted) which is just mind-boggling to me.
26: The Ephesus Museum was very well put together. About 17 years ago in the Ephesus Prytaneum, aka the town hall, 3 statues of Artemis were uncovered in pristine condition. It is believed that the curates, keepers of the eternal flame, buried them there for safekeeping. The Prytaneum housed a reception hall for dignitaries, the sacred fire of the city and the quarters of the curates. Middle, Left: Tomb of St. John Middle, Right: the first "baptistery" | One of the three statues of Artemis | SELCUK | The Temple/Basilica of St. John (built by the architect of the Hagia Sofia) was built in the 6th century by the Emperor Justinian at the site of an earlier shrine and is believed to contain the tomb of St. John the Evangelist, a focal point of the site. From here you can see one column of the Temple of Artemis, a pagan temple that Christians used as a quarry and one of the original Seven Wonders of the World and; the Seljuk Mosque built in 1375; and a Byzantine fort built in the 11th century to defend against the Turks. Obviously, the Turks ultimately conquered it. WOW – the amount of world history that happened on this spot is mind boggling! The Temple of Artemis, Basilica of St. John and Seljuk mosque form a triangle. | Bottom Left: view from St. John's of mosque & site of Temple of Artemis - Bottom Right: Temple of Artemis site with fort, basilica & mosque in background
27: October 22, 2010 SULTANKOY CARPET SCHOOL | The Sultankoy carpet school is a wholesaler with over 4000 carpets in the collection. About 30 years ago, carpet weaving was a dying art and the government created several foundations throughout the country. Each is assigned 50-60 villages in their area to cultivate the art. The girls must be 18 years old to attend school. Once trained, the looms are sent back to the village so that they can work from home. Each girl is considered an artist and has the ability to change or modify a pattern on her “canvas”. Carpet weaving is a Turkish invention and while the material doesn’t determine quality, it does determine price. Carpets have a pile, so kilims are not considered carpets. | Above: Extracting the silk from the worm casing using HOT water Below: Dying silk & wool over a fire | Silk carpets are very hard on the eyes which can only handle about 3 hours/day in 30 minute slots. The girls enjoy working at the school for the social interaction and are paid a fixed wage plus a percentage of each of their carpets sold. The silk carpet demo that we saw was 650 double knots/square inch. That knot is used most often in Turkey but is less common elsewhere. | Left: Kathryn's kilim purchase
28: MARMARIS - Gulet cruise, here we come!!! I'll just let the pictures speak for themselves.
30: Our boat was 90 feet long with 8 cabins plus space for a captain, cook & crew (3 people total) Even though the boat had sails, they are primarily for show as it doesn't have a keel. The captain hoisted them for a short while and cut the engines. So peaceful!
31: October 23, 2010 CARIA REGION (VISITS TO CAUNOS & DALYAN) | Diesel engines at 6:00am - that will wake you up! We moved to Ekincik Bay where we transferred to a smaller boat to travel upriver to the ancient town of Caunos. At the time this city was active, its harbors were at the sea. Over time, the three harbors silted closed. The original theater was built into the side of a hill, but the Romans expanded it with their arch. During the earliest history of Caunos, bodies of the deceased were buried under the earth. After one year the grave was opened, the bones collected and moved to a family sarcophagus inside rock-cut tombs in the mountainside. | Michael - That's the ladies' room - Amy & Bea straightened him out!
32: October 24, 2010 THE "3 HOUR TOUR" Shortly after dinner last night the coast guard docked beside our boat and created quite a stir. We were told that one of the villagers had gotten sick and they were going to get her. The next morning we learned that the coast guard did not leave until the wee hours of the morning. The “sick villager” was in fact a 40-year old woman who had fallen from an olive tree and broken her neck - very sad! We set out on our “3 hour tour”, hoping to return before the crew from Gilligan’s Island did! The first hour or so was TOUGH, but the scenery was amazing. We reached the shepherd’s hut, home of Mutlu, his wife and her brother. They were close friends with the woman who fell and she lived nearby. Even in the midst of their exhaustion and sadness, they were very gracious people and served us sage tea and the most wonderful homemade bread (looking back at the end of the trip, this was the BEST bread we had – IMHO) with pine honey from their hives.
33: Mutlu and his wife were selling olive wood spoons, honey, handcrafts and wind chimes made from tiny cowbells. Their daughter is school age so she had to go live with relatives in order to attend school. Their farm and home is very rustic, but they have cell phones - and get good service (something we can't always say!) We met a small OAT group traveling in the opposite direction. They said it was downhill from there - YIPPEE!
34: Downhill - they weren't kidding!! | Our hike ended at Cleopatra's Sunken Bath's (she never visited, but the name brings the tourists).
35: SWIMMING IN THE AGEAN/MEDITERRANEAN This is the warmest time of year to swim, but the water was COLD! Most of these pictures were taken at Cleopatra"s.
36: October 25, 2010 Today, we made a pitstop (literally for the holding tank aboard our gulet) in Gocek. Nedi said that this is a playground for the "rich and famous" in Turkey during the tourist season. I'm not sure why they weren't there to greet US! The Lady Christine was there - a 183 foot mega yacht with 37,000 gallon fuel capacity & 5,000 mile range. I think she was jealous of our itinerary because we have seen her in every cove we've stopped in overnight. She was also Fetiye, our last port on this fabulous gulet adventure. | Left: The Lady Christine Right: The SS Poe Family Adventure I can see why the LC would be jealous, can't you? | Our walking tour of Fetiye took us through the market where you can purchase fish or meat and have it prepared one of several ways with salad and sides for a small price. We should have done this, as the last night aboard the gulet was very bland - I guess they were "cleaning out the fridge".
37: KAYAKOY Originally known as Karmylassos, it was a thriving Greek-based, but multi-ethnic city where people lived in harmony during the Ottoman Empire. That all changed when the Turkish Republic was founded and the borders between Greece and Turkey were determined and a population exchange was forced. (Note: Only orthodox Christians in Istanbul and Muslims in Athens were permitted to stay in their home country.) The city, known today as Kayakoy, and dedicated as a UNESCO World Heritage site is eerily quiet and very humbling. Nedi took us to two churches in the city that had beautiful mosaic tile work on the floor and courtyards. Many of the exterior mosaics had been dug up because people were looking for valuables that those forced into deportation might have buried. Those people were told that it would only be a temporary move. Unfortunately, that was not the case and this is a very sad story all the way around.
38: October 26, 2010 Today we had a VERY long but scenic bus ride along the Taurus Mountains and the Mediterranean Sea to Antalya by way of Kas and Myra. Between Fethiye and Antalya is a tremendous amount of agriculture, primarily vegetables. The amount of greenhouses we saw was mind boggling. Kas was our first stop of the day. It is Nedi's favorite vacation spot because it is a small community with lots to do. Unfortunately, it will no longer be a hidden gem as they are building a giant marina that will bring hoards of tourists. | Greenhouses - as far as the eye could see. Amazing! | Kas - Joe Poe stopped for a beverage (pomegranate & OJ) - don't forget the backpack! Michael, Kathryn & Amy "contributed to the local economy"!
39: MYRA The earliest written records date Myra to the 1st century BC, but there is evidence that it was in existence as early as the 5th century BC. Myra was one of the 10 important cities of Lycia and was visited by Paul and Luke. The theater has been well taken care of on the outskirts of the modern town and the rock cut tombs are beautiful. | Group Photo: Top: Michael, Kathryn, Morgan, Amy, Joe, Jerry Bottom: Bea, Sam, Katie, Roger, Lois, Joyce, Ida
40: St. Nicholas (yes, Father Christmas) was Myra's bishop in the 4th century AD and “his” church is well preserved in the main part of town. He was born in Kas in the second half of the 3rd century AD and lived there until he became bishop at Myra. There are many frescos remaining and they are about 1000 years old. One is of John the Baptist, Jesus, and Mary. Another is of Jesus and the 12 disciples. There are 2 sarcophagi inside the church, one a little more ornate than the other. There is some disagreement as to which, if either, is St. Nicholas. They are both empty.
41: ANTALYA Next stop – Antalya, a city with a current metro population of about 1 million on the Mediterranean with a beautiful natural harbor. Nedi said people (tourists) primarily come here to go to Perge and Aspendos, which we are visiting tomorrow. Our hotel is the Tuvana Hotel, one of four in the area that OAT uses, and Nedi hasn’t stayed here yet. It is a restored property with many “mansions” in the complex. The GM greeted us and told us that she is a native of Antalya and was actually born not too far from the hotel in her grandparents’ home. | Hadrian's Gate (right) - was built to honor his visit to Antalya. Restoration began in the 1950s. | Tuvana Hotel GM: Roger & Joe couldn't resist a picture. Antalya Harbor: Michael enjoying the view
42: October 27, 2010 ANTALYA ARCHEOLOGY MUSEUM | The museum is closed tomorrow in preparation for Friday's Turkish Independence Day so we went today. There are many items found at Perge and Aspendos and the museum is well put together. | There are many marble statues that were found at the two sites and an extensive collection of busts of leaders and legendary figures as well as many examples of very detailed sarcophagi. | Upstairs there are quite a few items that were found at the Basilica of St Nicholas. The last few rooms in the museum or more modern “finds” like kilims and carpets and things depicting the nomadic lifestyle of the Turks.
43: PERGE - IN A WORD - WOW! | Perge is absolutely an amazing site that rivals Ephesus – with the exception of the library at Ephesus. It had a stadium and because few cities did in those days, this was a very important city. Every four years they hosted something akin to the Olympics. The theater at Perge held around 10,000 and the stadium held around 40,000 (see, obsession with sports over the arts/culture is not a new phenomenon). Track and field was very popular as was the occasional circus and political rally. Archeology didn’t become important in the area until after the founding of the modern Turkish Republic. The forward looking Ottoman Empire had no interest in the past. Nedi was asked how these sites were found. She said that the basic information had been passed down through families in the local villages as this area has been continuously occupied since it was founded. The Mediterranean Sea had many bandits and pirates on it, so Perge and Aspendos founded their cities about 5km up the mouth of a wide, navigable river. This made both cities much more defensible. The defensive walls date from the 4th century BC (beginning of the Hellenistic period). Paul visited Perge and preached here during his 2nd mission trip. The Roman wall was added for extra protection in the 4th century AD and the city was abandoned in the 7th century. Only 10% has been excavated and, like Ephesus, what wonders await discovery.
44: STADIUM AT PERGE | Lois & Kathryn playing a "really old" board game. We're not sure who won since we couldn't find a copy of the rules. | selling just about everything you can imagine, including a fish market, butcher shop, spice markets etc. The colonnade was covered by a wooden roof for shade as it can be blistering hot in the summer. The shopkeepers here were mostly “settled merchants”, meaning this was their profession and they were permanent residents. There were some short distance merchants who traveled the one-way week's | journey from Italy or Egypt. There were also some long distance merchants who stopped here on their travels along the Silk Road. They may only come through every 10 years or so. | Bottom: The commercial agora (market) - There were many shops
45: ROMAN BATHS AT PERGE | WATER CANAL - SPRING FED WATER SOURCE FOR THE CITY Left: looking back to the water source at the edge of the city - water was gravity fed through a series of locks and dams. Right: looking from the source down the main street of the city of Perge. This system was an amazing engineering feat for its day.
46: ROMAN AQUEDUCT - BUILT IN THE 2ND CENTURY AD Legend has it that the governor of the region offered his very eligible and rich daughter as a prize to the person who could do the most good for the city. Many people created different things, but the 2 finalists were the architects of the theater and the aqueduct. The governor agonized over his decision and finally decided that the aqueduct builder would win since it was essential to the survival of the city, whereas the theater, while an amazing structure, wasn’t needed for survival. | He took one more walk through the theater before announcing his decision. As he was exploring the niches at the very top of the seating area, he heard a whispering voice tell him to pick Zeno for his daughter. Believing it was a voice of the gods, he changed his mind and gave his daughter to Zeno. In reality, Zeno was hiding behind the stage taking advantage of the acoustics he had created. Amazingly, they still work today! Aspendos is only 20 km from Perge and it also has a stadium. It is very rare for 2 cities with stadiums to be so close together. This really emphasizes how important both places were in “their day”. The stadium at Aspendos had a capacity of about 25,000 and has not been excavated like the one at Perge so we couldn’t go inside.
47: THEATER AT ASPENDOS - DOUBLE WOW! | Front Door | Looking at the stage | Concourse | Niches across the top still provide amazing acoustics.
48: Backstage at the theater | Kathryn searches for the best seat in the house. | These seats really aren't too bad! | Morgan & Kathryn explore the niches.
49: Beautiful Theater | Joe Poe testing out the acoustics - YEP, they still work
50: TIME FOR LUNCH!! Nothing beats a roadside stand with great food and cold beer | Not sure whose beer that is, but it isn't Kathryn's! | We are so glad that we came on this extra tour. Both sites are phenomenal! On the way back to Antalya we passed many cotton fields. Nedi said that it is all still picked by hand. During the ride back, it began to rain. We have been so lucky with the weather, so this is a nice change of pace, especially since we are not walking around in it! | Nedi told us she would take us to a local place. that Safye Captain had found a while ago but hadn’t shared his secret until today. We had the homemade pancakes (crepes) with potatoes and cheese and a hot tomato, pepper, egg dish (menemen) that you eat with bread. It was WONDERFUL!
51: October 28, 2010 ON OUR WAY TO THE VILLAGE HOME STAY - YIPPEE!!! | Today we leave sea level to climb to about 5000 feet in the Taurus Mountains. The temperature will most likely be very different. The skies are threatening and it will be a good day to be on the bus. Before we arrived at the village for our home stay, we took a little “discovery” to a Hittite ruin with a spring that has been running for more than 4500 years – and it isn’t just a trickle, it is gushing water. It is named Eflatun Pinar, which I believe means purple springs. The water level stays basically the same and the water from here eventually drains into Beysehir Lake, the 3rd largest in Turkey. This is not a tourist region by any stretch and OAT is the only company that brings foreign tourists to this area. Joe got his “water” here!
52: HOME STAY The village of Kusluca, which also sits on a lake, is our home for the night. The elevation is about 5,000 feet and they get a significant amount of snow. Our host family includes Ibrahim and Nuray, along with their sons Ferhat and Arda. Their daughter is in her first year at university, studying chemistry. It is quite an accomplishment for a girl from a small village to pass the exams and go to college. Her family is very proud, but this is also very expensive thing for her family. Their son will take the entrance exams and hopes to also go to university and study mechanical engineering. Their 6 year old son is a real test for his parents according to Nuray. They live in a beautiful 3 story home that will become the “family” home when the parents are gone. Traditionally, the oldest son would move to the home with his wife, but they hope that Ferhat will not stay in the village to farm. Nedi had told us that Ibrahim and Nuray, the oldest of 5 girls, eloped 20 years ago. Her parents arranged for her to marry someone from another town, but she was in love with Ibrahim. They had known each other all their lives and wanted to marry each other. Because Ibrahim’s older brother was getting married later that month, he couldn’t upstage the nuptuals by asking for Nuray’s hand. They came up with a secret plan to elope but the only time it could work was the first night (of 3) of Nuray’s arranged wedding. One of Ibrahim’s friends had agreed to help them get away in his car. They had everything timed out perfectly, but as you can imagine, "Murphy" intervened. Ibrahim and Nuray had to leave a few minutes ahead of schedule because that’s when the “window” opened. She left the hall with the traditional gifts of money and gold pinned to her wedding gown. Ibrahim snuck out as well. Wouldn’t you know it, the car wasn’t there so they started running. The guests noticed they were missing and organized a search. They had to hide in the fields and ditches to keep from being detected. They reached Ibrahim’s friend’s home but he wasn’t there (he had gone to get the couple). His friend’s father was an elder and a wise man that could see what was happening. He agreed to hide them away in the home he had just finished behind his own. He didn’t tell a soul even when people came around asking. He was their “eyes and ears” in the village. The villagers had figured out what happened, but couldn’t find them. Eventually, they came out of hiding and explained that they were in love and wanted to be married. . You can imagine how well that went over with the “other” groom. Even when all the gifts were returned, he made it difficult for them. FINALLY – a double wedding was held with Ibrahim’s brother and they lived happily ever after.
54: October 29, 2010 FARMING IN TURKEY | Joe went out with Ibrahim this morning. His father, who lives next door, helps a little bit, but is mostly retired. Ibrahim bought a new 75 horsepower 4-wheel drive New Holland tractor in Ankara last year. It has a cab and all the “bells and whistles” just like the ones in the States. Ibrahim grows sugar beets, lentils, wheat, barley and opium, which is tightly controlled by the government. Sugar beets is his best crop and is being harvested now. His irrigation system is very different from ours as it is portable and uses flexible pipes, tied into sprinklers that cover a small area – similar to what we might see at a nursery. Ibrahim speaks some English so he and Joe were able to communicate a little and it looked like they both really enjoyed it. When they got “stuck” in the language area, they drew pictures in the dirt. Ibrahim’s equipment is very nice and obviously cared for very well. | His father still has a tractor, an older model 2-wheel drive Massey Ferguson. Even though we haven’t seen any John Deere products, Ibrahim is well aware of the company.
55: BEYSEHIR MOSQUE - ONE OF THE OLDEST IN ASIA - BUILT IN THE 13TH CENTURY | Pit that "in its day" caught snow to help regulate humidity and keep the wood from drying out. | Left: the mihrab points to Mecca Top Right: carved ceiling Right: amazing detail on the beams Bottom Middle: Lois, Amy & Joyce
56: ON TO KONYA THEN CAPPADOCIA | The Konya area is known as the “grain silo” of Turkey and we can see why. The fields are much larger here with not as many trees. But for the hills, it would look a lot like the Mississippi Delta. Konya has a mosque that has been turned into the Whirling Dervish museum. Some history about Konya – In the 13th century, Seljuk Turks moved into Turkey, conquered the Byzantine empire, and founded a state with Konya as its first capitol. It was the intellectual and cultural center of everything, built at the crossroads of the north/south road from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean and the east/west Silk Road. There were 4 universities here: Koranic, Medical, Law, and Astrology. This was also the birthplace of the insurance industry as businesses insured their cargo that traveled the Silk Road. The Silk Road could only be traveled in daylight hours – it was dangerous in the daytime, but much more so at night. As you can imagine, this was the most prosperous city in Asia Minor (Constantinople was in decline). Caravans traveling the Silk Road could cover about 40km per day and had to reach their next destination by sunset or they were not allowed in the caravanserai (campground) - pictured above. Once the gates were closed, they were not reopened for any reason until the next morning and everyone’s cargo was deemed intact. There were many raiders/pirates along the Silk Road, so these areas had to be heavily fortified. Konya has become a very fundamentalist city. No alcohol is sold, but they have the highest concentration of people who drink it.
57: KAYA HOTEL IN UCHISAR VILLAGE | Below: view of cave home across the valley from the hotel | Below: view of the now-extinct volcano Mt. Erciyes. Caves are a result of erosion of its eruptions millions of years ago.
58: October 30, 2010 GOREME OPEN AIR MUSEUM | The Museum was created by the Turkish government to recognize its significance. It was a Christian monastery and school founded in the 5th century and active until the 13th century and the start of the Ottoman Empire. There were no “buildings”. The entire complex was carved into the hills. Besides being practical, it also helped camouflage them from attackers. In several of the chapels there are portraits of Constantine who converted the Roman Empire to Christianity in the middle of the 4th century and reversed the persecution by his predecessor Diocletian. He founded Constantinople which would be the capitol of the Eastern Roman empire for over 1000 years and was later renamed Istanbul.
59: OMURLU FAMILY SERAMIK (CERAMIC) HOUSE IN AVANOS | This was a very messy demonstration! The red clay was very rough on the hands. | True artists at work! Omurlu is a family owned business that has been making pottery since 1807. | Lots of "shopping options" here!
60: PASABAG - FAIRY CHIMNEYS | Where is Papa Smurf? We looked and looked and looked!!
61: ELIS KAPADOKYA HAMAM IN GOREME This is the only public hamam (bath) in Goreme and one Nedi enjoys visiting when she's here. She's been telling us about it since Istanbul. The Poe group decided to try it out (well, all except Michael). Let's just say that Kathryn's reaction was "been there done that" and leave it there!
62: October 31, 2010 | What a view from the hotel on this very early morning. | This morning we went to the defensive fortress built in Uchisar Village where there are beautiful views of the surrounding areas from every direction. Uchisar is situated at the highest point in the region, just 7km from Nevsehir, the capitol of Cappadocia. | It is said that in town with citadels like Uchisar had, that there are tunnels from the fortresses to the valley so that the townspeople could escape if necessary. Those tunnels probably led to their underground cities. From here we could see many examples of the pigeon houses (bottom right). Trained pigeons were very popular and their waste was also used as fertilizer in the local vineyards.
64: KAYMAKLI Kaymakli is one of only 3 underground cities that has been excavated and is open to the public. It is definitely NOT the place to go if you are claustrophobic. These were not cities that were occupied all the time, but where people went to escape invaders. There were stables, schools, cemeteries, pantries, chapels, wineries, kitchens, living quarters etc. Air shafts were also built – very ingenious. Cooking was only done once every 10 days or so and always at night so as not to give their location away to the enemy. If an enemy happened to find a well-hidden entrance, he had a very hard time navigating the false hallways and traps that had been set. When people had to retreat underground, sometimes they were there for 8+ months. Because the retreat was often hasty, the cities stayed stocked with provisions. | Bottom right: spice grinding wheel - each spice had its own "well"
65: OUR LAST ADVENTURE - A TWO HOUR HIKE INTO THE GOREME VALLEY BEHIND THE HOTEL It's hard to believe our Turkish Adventure is coming to an end! Tomorrow we begin the LONG journey home.
66: RANDOM BITS OF INFO FROM OUR TRIP The next few pages contain things we learned that really didn't "fit" elsewhere in this book. Taxes are very high in Turkey – 40% income tax plus 18% VAT. Most tax money in the past has gone to military expenses. The Turkish army is the strongest in Europe, presumably because of its proximity to the Middle East. Three different raw materials are used in carpet making: wool, silk and cotton. (Wool on wool, wool on cotton and silk on silk) Silk thread is dyed with chemicals because the strong threads will not hold colors from vegetable dyes for very long. Wool is dyed using vegetables and the Anatolia region grows many of those plants: madder = red / sage, saffron, onion skin, and daisies = yellow / walnut shells = brown / indigo = blue. but in the pot it is yellow/green. When removed from the dye and exposed to the air, it becomes blue. Because of this, no two "blues" are ever the same. Silk worms are farmed similarly to any other crop and they are brought here for processing. If the moth is allowed to eat through the sack, the silk is useless. The silk pods are heated in very hot water and a special broom is used to find the beginning of the strand/filaments and twist several strands together using something likes a spinning wheel. One continuous filament is approximately a mile long. It starts as spit in the worm’s mouth and somehow transforms to silk filament. The worms eat the leaves of mulberry trees and it takes 50-60 filaments twisted together to make a thread when it comes out of the water. It still has lots of glue (spit) in it and has to be processed further. 6% of Turkey's national budget is spent on their version of social security which is also their public health insurance. If you work illegally (farm labor, house cleaner etc.) you don’t have access to this. Those without access must pay for any healthcare they receive. Oftentimes friends and family help. There are also local, fairly popular, TV shows where people can appeal to the public for assistance. Nedi has chosen to have private health insurance and that costs her about $2250/year. This allows her to go to a private hospital and see a doctor with whom she can develop a relationship rather than go to the Turkish version of “doc in the box”. She will also receive a government pension of about $250/month in retirement. That won’t really be very helpful so she is saving on her own. In order to qualify for the pension, you must complete 30 years of service and women must be at least 58 and men 60. Real estate in Turkey is affordable except in Istanbul. A reasonable price for a 3 bedroom 100m2 place is $40,000. You must put down 40% and mortgages are only 5-10 years. Approximately 71% own their home, 22% rent, 4% live with family members, and 3% live in company housing. Approximately 12% of the population own a 2nd home. Cars are very expensive. There are only about 102/1000 people.
67: The train system in Turkey is very inefficient except between Izmir and Istanbul. Only the very poor people use them as they are typically used for cargo. The bus system between cities and villages is very efficient and much more commonly used. Tie The Knot – A carpet weaver will tie knots in the fringe of her creation and hang it in her front window to show that she is ready to be married. Herake was a village founded in the 1500s to make carpets for the sultan. Today it is a world famous brand for wool on cotton carpets. Population of Turkey is approximately 73 million with a 1.3% growth rate and it is approximately the size of Texas. Inflation is currently 7% and dropping. Six years ago it was 80%. Minimum wage is $500/month but it is impossible to survive on that. Average monthly salary (net pay) Teacher - $600 / Judge - $900 / Police - $800 / Doctor - $1200 (government hospital) / Nurse - $600 (government hospital) / Professor - $1350 (government university) / Professor - $5,000-$7,000 (private university) 98% of the population is Muslim, but only a small percentage are practicing. There are about 110,000 Christians and 30,000 Jews. There are 72,000 mosques in Turkey. 98% literacy rate for men and 85% for women. School is compulsory from ages 6-14. 65% of all marriages are arranged and the divorce rate among them is <1% (5% for all marriages). Life span for men is 63 and 68 for women for all of Turkey. In the cities, it is 69 for the men and 74 for the women. In the country/villages, it is much lower. Wild olives grow all over the countryside but they are inedible. Military service is compulsory for males for 12 months. Until 2 years ago, the term was 18 months. Turkey is an original member of NATO and has excellent guerrilla fighters.
68: The seeds of a carob tree weigh exactly one gram each and they were used as official measurements in the markets. Turkey is a very oil poor country and can only provide 17% of its own oil. It is, however, rich in other elements: copper (eastern Turkey), lead, sulfur, zinc, mercury, iron, chromium, aluminum, gold, silver, & uranium, among others. The death penalty was abolished in 2002. There aren’t many wild animals comparatively speaking. As a side note, we saw very little, if any, “road kill”. 22% of the population drinks alcohol and raki (anise flavored liqueur) is the most popular drink. According to Nedi, there is no minimum age to buy alcohol or tobacco in stores. There are about 1.2 children per family in western Turkey and 4.2 in eastern Turkey. Both numbers are decreasing. There are 12 islands very close to Turkey that were given to Greece in 1923. Nomadic tribes still exist in Turkey. They live in the mountains in the summer and migrate to the sea in the winter. There are currently about 50,000 Armenians in Istanbul and 400,000 in Turkey. Relations have been off/on and the border has been open/closed for years. The Seljuk Turks’ rule wasn’t as long as it could have been because when a sultan died, the land was divided among all of his heirs. The Ottoman Empire lasted much longer because everything passed to only one person. The Seljuk Turks were the first settled tribe of Turks. The other tribes that came through continued with their nomadic ways. The Silk Road is how the Turks got to Turkey and there are still pure Turks living all along it (Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan etc.) There are very few, if any, pure Turks in Turkey. They have all intermarried with some of the 50 minority groups that make up the country. Nedi did say that she feels those who live in the cave homes are true Turks as they live a simple life.
69: ARRANGED MARRIAGES The majority of marriages in Turkey are arranged - a fact that surprised all of us and prompted lots of questions. Nedi explained the process and included her personal experience. Potential husbands are called visitors. The bride’s parents will, through a matchmaker, invite a visitor and his parents to their home. He never goes alone, so if he doesn’t have living parents, he may come with another relative or someone considered an elder. When they arrive at the home, the girl’s parents invite everyone in and they get to know each other with small talk. They avoid controversial subjects like politics and soccer unless they cheer for the same team. The girl is not part of this discussion. She is in another part of the house primping. When she does make her appearance, she takes drink orders. The “visitor” always asks for sweet coffee. She returns to the kitchen and prepares the orders. If she likes the looks of her suitor, she will prepare the coffee sweet. If she does not, she will add salt instead. Everyone is watching for his reaction when he tastes the coffee. Nedi’s oldest sister was 18 when her first visitor arrived and it was love at first sight. Her middle sister served salty coffee to 6 visitors over an 8 or so year period and also dated on her own before she found the right one. Her father had begun to complain about how much he was spending on salt! Nedi found her own husband. She thought arranged marriages were too old fashioned. She was married at 24 and divorced 10 years later. She said that she understands now that the problems they had were minor. (Although from discussions with her, they seemed very major. He had no interest in saving for the future. He always wanted to buy “things”.) When she left, she only took 1 or 2 suitcases with her and he got everything else. With no children involved, the Turkish government usually sides with the man. The reason the divorce rate is so low is that when a couple has problems, their parents or other elders get involved and help them get back on track. The younger people really rely on the wisdom of those who have gone before them. Nedi and her husband did not consult their parents for help with their problems.
70: POPULATION EXCHANGE Our trip to Marmaris prompted a discussion about the population exchange with the Greeks that followed their defeat by the Turks. Marmaris is only 45 minutes or so by boat to Rhodes, which is where Nedi’s maternal grandmother was born and deported during the population exchange. Her maternal great-grandfather was governor of Rhodes, appointed by the Ottomans, and was a wealthy man. He and his wife converted to Islam in order to pay fewer taxes and because he had only daughters, there was no threat of compulsory military service. The conversion was strictly economic. They were Greek, only spoke Greek and lived as Greeks. There was no connection whatsoever to Turkey, but when the population exchange happened in 1924, because they were Muslim, the family was deported to Izmir (Smyrna). Only orthodox Christians in Istanbul and Muslims in Athens were permitted to stay in their home country. Nedi’s grandmother was only 5 years old and her family lost everything (though they didn’t know it at the time) – their home, their land, their heritage and all of their belongings. They each were allowed to take one small suitcase with them and she was never allowed to see her homeland again. Even as an adult she was never granted permission for a visit. Because she was 5 when they left, she and her sister learned Turkish but her parents didn’t and Greek was only spoken in their home. Nedi and her mother were able to visit Rhodes and her grandmother’s home was still standing. They knocked on the door and had a wonderful visit with the family that lived there. They even took some dirt and pebbles home to her grandmother. She had one of the pebbles made into a necklace and never took it off. She was buried with it, along with the dirt and remaining pebbles.
71: THE KURDS The Kurdish people are primarily Muslim and are an ethnic group without a country who lived primarily under rule of the Russian and Ottoman empires. The majority live in Turkey (12 million), Iran (7 million), Iraq (6 million) and Syria (2 million) in an area known locally as Kurdistan, where those countries come together. A significant percentage of the Armenian population is Kurdish. During WWI the Kurds sided with Russia because they promised the Kurds their own country. The Ottomans sent a large regime of troops to fight the Russians in March of 1915, but they lost all of them in the snow without a fight. The troops were from a much milder climate and not prepared for the harsh mountains of eastern Turkey. The Ottomans then decided to deport all the Armenians but were only able to detain 265 leaders as a sufficient number of police wasn’t sent to deport all 700,000 from Turkey (makes you wonder how the Empire survived as long as it did). What followed was one of the first widespread genocides as Armenians and Kurds were forcibly removed from their homes and communities and marched across Turkey. The Kurds in Turkey used to be concentrated in southeastern Turkey, but now they live all over. Approximately 15 million, or 20% of the total population would be considered Kurdish, but only half of them have both parents who are Kurdish. There are 14 different dialects of Kurdish, so it made communication very difficult. CYPRESS Cyprus was a British colony until 1960 when they were able to gain independence by agreeing not to be governed by Turkey or Greece. The constitution divided cabinet seats, civil service posts etc., according to an agreed upon ratio between the Turkish and Greek populations, a bad idea, as the Greek side desperately wanted to re-join with Greece as did the Turkish side with Turkey. In 1964, tensions reached a boiling point and the country fell into a 10 year civil war. In 1974, Greece staged a military coup, which Turkey used as a reason to invade Cyprus. It was divided into Northern and Southern Cyprus with their own version of a population exchange - Greeks fled south and Turks fled north. The governments were heatedly divided. Northern Cyprus declared its independence in 1983 but that was not recognized by the UN and the Republic of Cyprus. A UN brokered peace settlement was proposed in 2004. The President of Cyprus, the Turkish Cyprus president and the Greek population opposed it, while the Turkish population supported it. Cyprus entered the EU in 2003 as a divided island. Southern Cyprus is a full member, but Northern Cyprus was rejected. Typically individuals on Cyprus are not hostile toward each other because they share ancestors. The governments are the problem. (hmmmm, that sounds familiar.)
72: AGRICULTURE There are 7 different climate zones in Turkey so they can grow the vast majority of their food supply. Organic farming and its exports are a huge industry. | Top; cotton & pomegranates at the Aspendos aqueducts. Other shots on this page are from Belenbasi village except the dates: peppers, dates (Antalya), pistachios, eggplant, pomegranates
73: Olive trees bear fruit only every 2 years due to the stress of the harvest on the trees. Turkey grows the most olives in the world but exports much of them to Italy, Spain & Greece. The brining process, while simple, can take a month to complete. (Random fact: Black olives do not exist in nature.) The bags of olives to the left were collected by Mutlu and his wife (met them on our hike). | Sugar beets are dug and piled by hand. The machine on the left then gathers and transfers them to trailers/buggies to be taken to the mill. | These grapes were grown in Cappadocia by a young couple who had purchased an acre of land just below our hotel.
74: FOOD As with any Poe Family Adventure, food was usually at the top of our "to do" list and we certainly checked that item off many times! Top row: lunch in the garden at Sultankoy Carpet School. Lois, Sam, Bea, Amy & Michael Roger, Katie, Joyce, Jerry, Ida, Kathryn & Morgan 2nd row: deli in the Istanbul Spice Market - tea merchant also in the Spice Market 3rd row: Helva, a sweet Turkish poppy paste. There's nothing to compare it to in American cuisine - very grainy. On the right is the breakfast buffet at the Tuvana Hotel in Antalya. 4th row: pancakes (crepes) at Kayakoy | Left: There truly is something for everyone in Kusadashi, but Cracker Barrel it ain't!
75: CATS - THEY WERE EVERYWHERE I have never seen so many cats in my life. They were all healthy looking, and we didn't meet any that were shy at all! clockwise from top left: Kas, Mosque of Suleyman the Magnificent, Istanbul Spice Market, "shopping" at the Spice Market, Ephesus, Kusadashi, Dalyan, Myra
76: ISTIKAL STREET IN ISTANBUL This is a "happening place" - notice the tables are outside, actually in the street/alley. This is because smoking is no longer permitted inside public places.
77: FLOWERS The flowers in Turkey were beautiful during our stay. Clockwise from top left: rose and dahlia at Topkapi Palace, flower market on Istikal Street, lantana at the Temple of St. John in Seljuk, hibiscus in Kas, the "yellow rose of Texas" at the Beysehir mosque and a red rose at the Beyseher mosque. Their rose garden was very impressive.
78: CROSSES | Left Column: Chapel at Goreme Open Air Museum (top & left) Myra Ephesus | Middle Column: Myra - St. Nicholas Church Antalya Museum Kayakoy | Right Column: Myra - St. Nicholas Church Myra Ruins Antalya Museum
79: STREET SCENES Left: Michael & Amy contributing to Kusadashi's economy. Right: Harbor area in Marmaris | Left: Fetiye Below: Marmaris | Left, middle: Joe Poe in Goreme trying to decide which cave hotel should be his headquarters for the next adventure to Cappadocia. Left, bottom: Nevermind, he'll just make this his HQ!
80: STONEWORK Top 2 rows: Perge Bottom 2 rows: Myra
81: TILEWORK Top: Topkapi Palace Bottom left: Ephesus Bottom right: Myra | Carpet weaving is a Turkish invention and the weavers oftentimes were inspired by tilework that they saw. There is certainly an abundance of it from many periods in history.
82: DOWNTIME IN TURKEY! | Morgan enjoyed catching some zzzzzzzzzz on the bus, as did everyone else. Amy is getting over a nasty case of "bottle flu" in her picture! Joe enjoyed modeling the latest leather fashions in Antalya & checking Kusadashi's weather. Since Kathryn isn't a beer drinker she had to make do with thyme tea or apple tea.
83: DOWNTIME IN TURKEY! | Coffee or wine on the Mediterranean just tastes better - just ask Joe, Amy or Michael. We did have to pack several times and it got more and more challenging after each shopping option! We also saw a day in the life of retired villagers since their wives won't let them back in the house until supper time. The captain was glad to have Morgan to take over for him so he could go fishing. Joe said - come on in the water's fine! Yeah right - it was COLD!
84: Kathryn & Morgan to Caunos | Kathryn & Joe on the "3 Hour Tour" hike | Kathryn attending carpet school | Kathryn at Temple of St. John in Selcuk | Amy & Michael having lunch at the carpet school | Joe & Morgan at fortress in Uchisar | Kathryn, Michael & Morgan listening intently | Michael at Cleopatra's Sunken Baths | Kathryn, Michael & Morgan exploring the niches at Aspendos | Morgan with the GM of Antalya's Tuvana Hotel | Kathryn & Joe in Caunos
85: Shopping opportunities at Ephesus, Istanbul & Marmaris Accommodations during the village home stay (Joe), the gulet cruise (Joe), Antalya (Kathryn & Morgan) and Cappadocia (Joe).