S: Bilingual Education
BC: Sources Baker, C. (2006). Chapters 7, 8 & 12. In Foundations of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism (pp. 142-186, 259-290). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. Collier, V. P. (1987, Winter). The Effect of Age on aAcquisition of a Second Language for School. National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education, 2. Retrieved from http://www.thomasandcollier.com Gallo, Y., Garcia, M., Pinuela, L., & Youngs, I. (2008). Crisis in the Southwest: Bilingual Education Program Inconsistencies. Multicultural Education, 16(2), 10-16. Retrieved from ERIC database. Hoingsfled, A. (2009). ELL Programs: Not "One Size Fits All." Kappa Delta Pi Record, 45(4) 166-171. Retrieved from ERIC database. Shoebottom, P. (n.d.). Second Language Acquisition: Essential Information. Retrieved April 5, 2011, from Frankfurt International School website: http://esl.fis.edu/teachers/ support/cummin.htm
FC: Bilingual Education Esperanza Hilts
1: Debating Hot Topics
2: By delaying the teaching of English, immigrants won't assimilate. | America
3: land of the free America is the land of the free. People come to America for this right. All Americans are not the same. In fact, it is one of the things that makes America so wonderful. An immigrant need not assimilate in order to "be an American." An American is simply someone who pertains to the United States.
4: English First | Should schools require students to speak English before they are taught content areas?
5: All students have the right to learn. Requiring students to learn English before they are able to receive instruction in the content areas will only hurt the student in the long run. It is also a violation of their civil rights according to the Lau v. Nichols U.S. Supreme court decision. In addition, research shows that programs which utilize the student's native language provide more access to content-area knowledge and facilitate academic and cognitive growth. This is also true of their English language proficiency. In other words, by including students in content area instruction the student's success in obtaining English as their second language is increased.
6: Parent's Expense Students who do not speak English should be taught at their parents' expense before they are enrolled in public schools. | $$$ | Money Matters
7: Parents of English language learners already pay taxes and should not be required to incur an additional expense for services that are currently afforded under the law.
8: in ENGLISH | Language Arts | Reading | Writing
9: L1 transfers to L2 | Teaching students English by utilizing reading and writing in English only is not the most effective method. The best method is to provide instruction in which student's skills are built in their first language. This will enable the skills to transfer to the second language.
10: Words, words, words | Confusion | More Words | Will speaking one language at home and another at school confuse students?
11: Language Mix Up? | This way | That way | Whether students are speaking, reading or writing in more than one language they have an advantage, not a disadvantage. Biliterate students are able to use the cues of two languages to interpret concepts.
12: PROGRESS | SUCCESS | Students with more than one language | will NOT make progress at school.
13: REACHING NEW HEIGHTS | Students with more than one language tend to have cognitive advantages over monolingual students. They have larger vocabularies and better comprehension. They possess metalinguistic awareness, too. These skills extend to adulthood.
14: Coming to America | If people want to hold on to their culture they should not come to America.
15: As it was long ago, and continues to be now, people come to America because of the civil liberties that are afforded to its people. Denying people the liberty to be who they are goes against the very principles under which this country was founded.
16: FAST ENGLISH | Most people learn it fast without any extra help.
17: It is true that basic communicative English is learned in a relatively short period of time, about two years. However, this basic language is not sufficient. | BICS v CALP | Students learning a second language need programs which are designed to target the necessary acadaemic language. | This type of language can take between 5-7 years.
18: Bilingual Education | A Threat to National Unity?
19: Supporters of bilingual education are not a threat to national unity. Providing bilingual education in America actually unites its multilingual inhabitants by demonstrating its commitment to the ideals of justice, freedom and equality. | Are supporters of bilingual education a threat to national unity?
20: Bilingual Education | Bilingual education is in fact necessary for the success of English language learners. Research has shown that students who are mainstreamed, or put in all English classrooms decreased in their reading and mathematics abilities and were more likely to drop out of school. The same research found that over time students in dual language and developmental bilingual programs were able to match or surpass their monolingual peers and they also yielded the lowest drop out rates.
21: Dual Language & Developmental Bilingual models are the most successful programs. | Is it necessary?
22: Providing bilingual education actually sends the opposite message. It shows that America wants its people to know and be successful in their command of the English language by providing programs that produce students who possess academic English. By having languages other than English in the American educational system, the U.S. is demonstrating it values all cultures and their unique contributions to its society. Bilingual education helps students and their families embrace the principals of freedom and equality upon which this country was founded.
23: Bilingual Education sends the message that living in the U.S. without learning English is acceptable.
24: POLITICS | Supporters of bilingual education are advocates for students and are not necessarily pushing political agendas. They are merely trying to help students, no matter their language proficiency levels. Encouraging students to set high standards for themselves and achieve success should not be viewed negatively, or as political propaganda. After all, that is the ultimate purpose of an education.
25: Supporters of bilingual education want to bring their community politics into schools.
26: Bilingual Education | A Waste of Money and Resources
27: The best way to learn English! | On the contrary, bilingual education for many students is the only way that they will learn English. If the U.S. wants students to acquire English then the best way to achieve this is to invest in bilingual education programs. No, it is not a waste of money or resources. It is an investment that will generate higher achieving students and higher reaching citizens after graduation.
28: Is younger better? | Do young children learn English more quickly and easily? Is it harder to learn English the older you become?
29: age does matter "It is clear that age (or age-related factors) is a major variable in the acquisition of a second language for school. In the early stages of acquisition, older students are faster and more efficient than younger students. Older students have the advantage of cognitive development in their first language to assist them with acquiring school skills in the second language. This early advantage diminishes after the first year for adults, but remains for older children and adolescents for continuing development of their second language skills. Adolescents past puberty are likely to retain an accent in the second language. Otherwise, they are capable of developing complete second language proficiency." - Collier
30: Doesn't bilingual education deny children their right to learn English? | the USA
31: right to learn English Children in the United States do have a right to learn English. In fact, in 1968 the Bilingual Education Act was passed in an effort to create programs that would do just that, grant students the right to learn English.