S: Egypt January 2012
FC: Egypt January 2012 Photographs by Paul A Gitman
1: Baron's Palace, Heliopolis, Cairo | Heliopolis, Cairo-the adventure begins
2: Traveling from Cairo to Alexandria | Pigeon coops
3: Roman Amphitheater, Alexandria The Amphitheater was discovered in 1965. It is the only Roman Theater in Egypt and one of its kind. Built in the 2nd century AD in the Roman era, the theater has 13 semicircular tiers made of white and gray marbles imported from Europe. This can accommodate about 800 spectators. 2 of the marble columns are still standing by the theater.
4: Seats in amphitheater have row and seat numbers. To the left, graffiti from Christian era
5: Library at Alexandria Originally founded in the third century BCE it was the greatest library in the ancient world. The new library was rebuilt in 2002.
6: Football stadium | Tomb of the Unknown Soldier | Stanley Bridge
7: Pompey's Pillar in Alexandria is a Roman triumphal column and the largest of its type constructed outside of the imperial capitals of Rome and Constantinople. It is one of the largest ancient monoliths and one of the largest monolithic columns ever erected. The monolithic column shaft measures 20.46 m in height with a diameter of 2.71 m at its base. The weight of the single piece of red Aswan granite is estimated at 285 t. The Corinthian column was actually built in 297 AD, commemorating the victory of Roman emperor Diocletian over an Alexandrinian revolt.
8: Below on the right is the Abu al-Abbas al-Mursi Mosque which is the most historic and most beautiful mosque in Alexandria. It was built primarily in 1775 over the tomb of a Spanish scholar and saint, Abu El Abbas El Mursi (1219-86), and stands on Mosque Square overlooking the eastern harbor. | Remains from the Serapium Temple. The Serapium is the site of religious rites for the ancient bull god, and the temple itself was leveled by the Christian Roman Empire.
9: Above and to the right are examples of decorative walls. | Museum in Alexandria Fort Qaitbey built in 1480s
10: Traffic and graffiti in Alexandria
11: Sunset, Alexandria
12: Driving from Alexandria to Tanis. | Houses typically built with unfinished top floor making expansion to house children's families easier.
13: Tanis was known by many names. Ancient Egyptians called it Djanet, and the Old Testament refers to the site as Zoan. Today it's called Sn el-Hagar. The site, in the Nile Delta northeast of Cairo, was capital of the 21st and 22nd dynasties, during the reign of the Tanite kings in Egypt's Third Intermediate period. Egypt's "intermediate periods" were times of weak central government when power was divided and sometimes passed out of Egyptian hands. During this time the rulers of Tanis were of Libyan decent, not scions of traditional Egyptian families. That distinction may have contributed to the city's disappearance in later years. Many who know of Tanis at all remember the city as portrayed in the Indiana Jones movie Raiders of the Lost Ark.
18: Tomb in Tanis with carved walls
20: Saqqara is a vast, ancient burial ground in Egypt, serving as the necropolis for the Ancient Egyptian capital, Memphis. Saqqara features numerous pyramids, including the world famous Step pyramid of Djoser, the oldest complete stone building complex known in history. It was built during the 27th century BC for the burial of Pharaoh Djoser by Imhotep, his vizier. It is the central feature of a vast mortuary complex in an enormous courtyard surrounded by ceremonial structures and decoration. To the left is the entrance wall
21: View of valley temple with path to the pyramid | Pyramid of Unas, Saqqara. Built by the last king of the 5th Dynasty, the pyramid of Unas is the first to have texts on the walls of its burial chambers. The spells of these Pyramid Texts were thought to be useful to the dead king in the afterlife; some were recited during his burial ceremonies.
22: Tomb of Maya, Saqqara Maya was the Overseer of the Treasury and Overseer of Works during the reign of Tutankhamen, and was closely involved with the revival of the worship of traditional deities, particularly Amun. Maya was married to Meryt, with whom he had two children
26: Tomb of Horemheb. It was constructed before Horemheb ascended to the throne, and was never used for his burial. His two wives Mutnedjmet and Amenia were buried within the structure.
30: Tomb of Pay and Raia, Saqqara. Pay held the title of Overseer of the Cattle of Amun. His main office, however, was that of Overseer of the Harm in Memphis. Various details in the tomb's decorations allow us to date his period of office to the reign of Tutankhamun (1333-1323 BC). The wall-reliefs show Pay's wife Repyt and a number of sons and daughters. One of the sons, Raia, chose a military career but took over his father's office of Overseer of the Harm at the latter's death.
31: Abusir, located several kilometres north of Saqqara and, like it, served as one of the main elite cemeteries for the ancient Egyptian capital city of Memphis | Mortuary Temple of Sahure Pyramid | Pyramid of Sahure. Sahure ruled Egypt from around 2487 BC to 2475 BC
32: The Mastaba of Ptahshepses at Abusir. This mastaba is considered the largest non-royal tomb in Egypt. It belongs to Ptahshepses who was a court official.
33: Pyramids at Giza | The Great Pyramid of Giza (called the Pyramid of Khufu )is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza Necropolis It is the oldest of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, and the only one to remain largely intact. Egyptologists believe that the pyramid was built as a tomb for fourth dynasty Egyptian Pharaoh Khufu over an approximately 20 year period concluding around 2560 BC. | The Pyramid of Khafre, is the second-largest of the ancient Egyptian Pyramids of Giza and the tomb of the fourth-dynasty pharaoh Khafre. Like the Great Pyramid built by Khafre’s father Khufu, a rock outcropping was used in the core.
35: above left, original entrance to pyramid above right, cutting liners from where stone blocks were cut from bed-rock
36: The Sphinx, is a limestone statue of a reclining or couchant sphinx (a mythical creature with a lion's body and a human head) that stands on the Giza Plateau .It is the largest monolith statue in the world, standing 73.5 metres (241 ft) long, 6 metres (20 ft) wide, and 20.22 m (66.34 ft) high. It is the oldest known monumental sculpture, and is commonly believed to have been built by ancient Egyptians of the Old Kingdom during the reign of the pharaoh Khafra (c. 2558–2532 BC).
39: Two rectangular boat pits found on the south side of the Great Pyramid were discovered in 1954, covered by huge limestone slabs, containing the dismantled remains of two Royal Boats. It is thought that these boats transported Khufu's body to his pyramid, since it was common practice to bury all items connected with the Royal Funeral, close to the final resting-place of the king.
40: The pyramid at Meidum was constructed in steps in the manner of the old style step pyramids. Sneferu, who o turned it from a step pyramid to a true pyramid by filling in the steps with limestone encasing. Many Egyptologists call the Meidum structure the first ‘true’ pyramid. below, looking toward the pyramid from the causeway
41: Mortuary Temple. Pyramid at Meidum | Alter stone
42: Meidum left, a mastaba of an unknown noble | Stairs leading down and tomb room in pyramid
43: Considered one of the most important archaeological sites of Ancient Egypt, the sacred city of Abydos was the site of many ancient temples, including Umm el-Qa'ab, a royal necropolis where early pharaohs were entombed. These tombs began to be seen as extremely significant burials and in later times it became desirable to be buried in the area, leading to the growth of the town's importance as a cult site. | Abydos | Temple of Seti I, Abydos
44: 12 columns on porch of Temple of Seti I, Abydos
46: Inside the Temple of Seti
54: Osireion at Abydos
55: el-Ashmunein At the entrance to the open air museum are two huge reconstructed baboon statues, their bodies over 4.5m high, representing the god Thoth. These are only two of several baboon colossi which were erected at the site during the reign of Amenhotep III (Dynasty XVIII).
56: Driving through local villages
58: Tuna el-Gebel
59: The site of Tuna el-Gebel in Middle Egypt was known to the Greeks as Hermopolis. In the southern part of the site there is an animal necropolis. Mummified ibises and baboons, associated with the god Thoth, were buried here in their thousands in subterranean galleries.
60: Mummy of Isadora, who drowned in the Nile in about 150 AD. | Tomb in Tuna el-Gebel
61: One of the best known monuments at Tuna el-Gebel is the Tomb of Petosiris and his family. He was a high priest of Thoth and lived during the time of Alexander the Great. It is unusual in that the tomb paintings combines Egyptian and Greek styles, having for example, traditional Egyptian farming scenes but with people dressed in a Greek fashion
66: Roman water well | Security escort
67: Driving through Local villages
68: Bani Hassan. The tomb of Khety with graffiti carved by a visitor
69: Coptic Church and other scenes along the Nile
70: Visiting Tel el-Amarna which is an extensive Egyptian archaeological site that represents the remains of the capital city newly–established and built by the Pharaoh Akhenaten of the late Eighteenth Dynasty (c. 1353 BC), and abandoned shortly afterwards. Dr. Barry Kemp took us on a private tour of Tel el Amarna
72: The tomb of Meryra is one of the six inscribed tombs The tombs are carved in the cliff which encloses the site of Tel el-Amarna. By its measurements and its craftsmanship, this tomb counts among the more beautiful and most imposing and indicates the favored status of a very high-ranking person of the Amarnian court. | Transportation by tuk tuk
74: El Kab. The ancient town comprises of monuments spanning periods of Egyptian history from Predynastic through to Ptolemaic. El-Kab was the home of Nekbet, the vulture goddess of Upper Egypt. | Chapel of Thoth, constructed by Ramesses Il
75: El Kab | the Ptolemaic Hemi-speos: the partially rock cut temple was already built during the reign of Ramesses II but early destroyed and only then new built during the reign of Ptolemaios VIII and IX. It is dedicated to the lion goddess Seshmetet
76: Graffiti on Tomb wall | Temple of Amenhotep III To sovereigns are represented there: Amenhotep III and his father Thutmosis IV.
79: Inscriptions at vulture rock, el Kab carvings by persons working or living in the area
80: Tomb of Pheri ,the powerful nomarch of El Kab dug for himself, in the hillside, a simple tomb in its form, but decorated with a rich iconography associating civil and religious scenes.
87: Tomb of AHMOSE SON OF ABANA This is the best known tomb in El Kab this small tomb is famous because it contains the well known chronicles of war of "admiral" Ahmose, a valorous soldier who served under three different Pharaohs. It represents the only historic source treating the expulsion of the Hyksos.
88: Tomb of Setau, First prophet of Nekhbet.
90: The Tomb of Renni is one of the rare Egyptian tombs which dates from the reign of Amenhotep I.
93: Ancient walls of El Kab | Tomb along the Nile | Our ship while sailing along the Nile
95: Of all the temple remains in Egypt, the Temple of Horus at Edfu is the most well-preserved and the only one we know to have been completed. Built from sandstone blocks the huge Ptolemaic temple was constructed over the site of a smaller earlier temple. | Temple of Horus at Edfu | The Ptolemaic temple which survives today, we know that this was begun by Ptolemy III Euergetes I in 237 BC, but was not completed until 57 BC.
98: Inner courtyard looking towards front entrance
99: Inner courtyard looking further into the temple
100: Statue of Horus
101: Inside the sanctuary at the center of the temple
103: Cruising the Nile | Fishing in the the Nile
106: Quarry at Gebel Silsilah | Holes to attach ropes to move stone blocks | Marks from people removing stone to use in prayers
108: Graffiti from visitor in 1861 | Signatures in stone by teams of rock cutters
109: Blocks of stone being cut
110: Tombs of noblemen Gebel Silsilah
111: Temple of Horeheb at Gebel Silsilah
112: Situated on the west bank are 33 cenotaphs (rock chapels) of the 18th Dynasty and the rock temple of Horemheb. The latter has a facade of four pillars -- a transverse hall and a sanctuary with seven rock-carved cult images.
115: The Temple of Kom Ombo stands on the east bank of the Nile. It was dedicated to two Gods, Horus and Sobek The Temple was mainly dedicated to the God Sobek, the crocodile God, together with his wife, in another form of the Goddess Hathor. | The Temple is of Greco-Roman structure, dating back to the year 119 BC, when Ptolemy VI, who started the construction, built it out of limestone. Neos Dionysus finished most of the building, while the Emperor Augustus added the final touches.
118: Depicting Birth and the instruments needed
124: Crocodile mummies and statues
126: Archangel Michael's Coptic Orthodox Cathedral, Aswan | Herd of Camels grazing along Nile near Aswan | Scene while sailing the Nile
127: Museum of Aswan | Coffins with prayers written inside.
128: Quarry in Aswan with unfinished obelisk still on site. | Stones used to cut the stone slabs
129: Temple of Philae | The Ancient Egyptians built a beautiful and magnificent Temple on this island for the Goddess Isis, but the Temple became submerged after the first Aswan dam was built in 1906, and it was not until the seventies that many nations attempted to save the Temple.
130: Trajan's Kiosk, a part of the temple complex on an island of Philae,
133: After the persecution of the Christians by the Roman Emperors. During the reign of the Emperor Justinian (527-565 A.D), the main Temple was converted to a church.
135: Market in Aswan.
138: The Temple of Kalabsha is an Ancient Egyptian temple that was originally located approximately 50 kilometers south of Aswan. The temple was situated on the west bank of the Nile River, in Nubia, and was originally built around 30 BC during the early Roman era. While the temple was constructed in Augustus's reign, it was never finished.
139: With help from Germany, the temple of Kalabsha was relocated after the Aswan High Dam was built, to protect it from rising waters on Lake Nasser.
141: Entrance to Holy of Holies
142: The Temple of Beit el-Wali is a rock-cut Ancient Egyptian temple in Nubia which was built by Pharaoh Ramesses II and dedicated to the deities of Amun-Re, Re-Horakhti, Khnum and Anuket.It was the first in a series of temples built by Ramesses II in this region; its name Beit el-Wali means 'House of the Holy Man' and may indicate its previous use as by a Christian hermit at some point in time. The temple was relocated during the 1960s as a result of the Aswan High Dam project and moved towards higher ground along with the Temple of Kalabsha
143: The overriding theme of Egyptian military success is hammered home on the wall, where Ramesses II's triumphal campaigns in Libya and Syria were recorded: he is portrayed trampling his enemies and holding others "by their hair in his left hand while smiting them with his right
149: Prehistoric rock carving. moved to Kalabsha island
150: The temple of Gerf Hussein (originally known as Per Ptah, the "House of Ptah") is dedicated to Ramesses II and was built by the Viceroy of Nubia Setau. Originally, it was partially free-standing and partially rock-cut. During the flooding of Lake Nasser, the free-standing section was dismantled and then rebuilt at New Kalabsha | Dedicated to the Nubian god Dedwen, this small chapel was also moved from a location further south. A section of the original wall shows detailed reliefs and hieroglyphs. This wall was part of the outer columned portico which led into a rock-cut inner sanctuary.
151: The Temple of Gerf Hussein
152: The Kiosk of Qertassi is "a tiny Roman kiosk with four slender papyrus columns inside, [and] two Hathor columns at the entrance. It is unfinished and not inscribed with the name of the architect, but is probably contemporary with Trajan's Kiosk at Philae. It dates to the Augustan or early Roman period. This was moved to the site of New Kalabsha once stood to the entrance to the sandstone quarries" of Qertassi. Its capitals "are decorated with Hathor heads, in honor of the goddess who was the patron of quarry-men and miners.
154: Friendship Monument built to commemorate Russia's involvement when the dam was constructed | Aswan Dam
155: And so another adventure comes to a close