S: El Salvador
BC: Isabella Peterson | BY:
FC: El Salvador
1: El Salvador | El Salvador is a country in Central America that has a democratic government
2: Geography The country El Salvador is 8,124 square miles or 21,041 square kilometers which is just smaller than the U.S. state of Massachusetts or Israel. El Salvador is a narrow band of coastal lowlands that is divided from the north and is mostly plateau. El Salvador is also known as Land of the Volcanoes because it is home to more than two hundred extinct volcanoes that enriched the country's soil. El Salvadors' mountain peaks rise to between 6,000 and 8,000 feet or 1,829–2,438 meters. Deforestation has taken a heavy toll on the country's forests, only about 2 percent of virgin forests remain and the government and private citizens are working now to protect endangered animal and plant species. In the lowlands the climate is tropical, with an average annual temperature of around 85F or 29C; semitropical on the plateau with lower temperatures and less humidity and is temperate in the mountains. El Salvador's temperatures rarely fluctuate more than 10 degrees year-round. El Salvador has only two seasons such as a rainy season, from May to October, and a dry season. Most of the rain falls in short evening storms, though some rainstorms can last for days.The capital, San Salvador lies on a plateau at the foot of the San Salvador Volcano. In El Salvador small earthquakes are common and one region or another region of El Salvador suffers a significant earthquake every 30 or so years. In El Salvador hurricanes and tropical storms are frequently causing flooding.
3: El Salvador's highest peak | El Salvador's Capital | El Salvador | El Salvador with its neighboring countries | Geography
4: El Salvador's population of over 6 million is growing at about 0.3 percent annually. The majority of Salvadorans (90 percent) are mestizos, or people of mixed European and indigenous ancestry, while about 1 percent are of pure native blood. Most of the other people are of European descent, though there is also a Palestinian presence. In urban areas, a brief, firm handshake is the customary formal greeting. People sometimes also slightly nod the head When addressing people older than themselves, Salvadorans show friendly respect by using the title Don (for men) or Doña (for women) with the first name (e.g., DoñaMélida). Friends and relatives visit one another frequently as a way to maintain strong relationships. Most people drop by without prior arrangement, although urban residents with phones try to call ahead when possible. Hosts usually serve guests refreshments or coffee. Visiting in the evening or on weekends is most popular. Visitors from out of town or who have not visited for a while commonly bring small gifts—fruit, pastries, and so on. Guests are expected to show dignity, courtesy, warmth, and friendship. Government El Salvador is a democratic republic. The executive branch is led by a president (currently Mauricio Funes) and a vice president, who are elected on the same ticket and serve a five-year term. Both president and vice president are ineligible for immediate reelection. The unicameral, national Legislative Assembly has 84 members, who are elected to three-year terms. Major political parties include the National Republican Alliance (ARENA), the Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front (FMLN), the Christian Democratic Party, and the National Conciliation Party. The voting age is 18. The country is divided into 14 departments and 267 municipalities. Although still weak, municipal power and autonomy, strengthened in the 1983 constitution, have been increasing steadily since 1990. Because of war and natural disasters, El Salvador has had one of the weakest economies in Latin America, but the economy recently has become more stable. Economic growth is still low, but inflation is under control. Problems remain in areas such as income inequality, unemployment and underemployment (which affect more than half of the population), land reform, deforestation, and pollution. Opportunities for personal advancement are limited. Coffee is the most important export, accounting for roughly one-third of all export earnings. It is grown on steep mountainsides because the higher of the altitude the higher coffee bean quality. Children often help their parents pick coffee during school vacations. El Salvador also exports sugar, cotton, shrimp, and clothing. Important domestic industries include food processing, cement, textiles, and petroleum processing. | Culture
5: Culture | Families usually eat at least the main meal together, whether it is at midday or in the evening. In urban homes, food usually is served on dishes from which diners choose their portions. In rural homes, plates are more often served prepared. At the beginning of a meal, people say Buen provecho roughly, “Enjoy your meal”) to each other. Guests compliment their hosts on the meal as a way of assuring the hosts they feel welcome. Hosts usually offer second helpings and feel complimented when they are accepted. The family is highly valued in El Salvador. The nuclear family is the basis of society, though it is not uncommon for extended families to live together or near each other. Urban families usually have three children, while rural ones have an average of six or more. Children are important contributors to family incomes, and family members are expected to support Families spend time together, sharing meals, attending religious services, and often going on at least one weekly outing—to shopping centers, beaches, lakes, and other locations. Gender roles are strictly defined in Salvadoran families. The father typically is head of the family and the financial provider. Women care for the children and household. Rural children participate in household chores such as water collection, cleaning, and farming and other jobs as soon as they are physically able. El Salvador has problems with overcrowding. In cities, Salvadorans live very close to each other, with many individuals living in a single house; areas for different families may be divided by curtains or short walls, with many families sharing just one room. In rural areas, homes are more basic. Often, they are made of adobe (mud bricks), concrete blocks, wood, or corrugated metal. Rural homes are generally one-room structures with two doors, two windows, and an earthen floor. In many such houses, beds and perhaps a table are the only pieces of furniture. Often strung up outside are a number of hammocks, on which family members take their siestas (afternoon naps). Rural families are typically quite large, with an average of six or more children.
6: History In El Salvador long before Spanish colonization various native civilizations such as Maya, Lenca, and Nahuat inhabited the area. The ruins of their cultures remain at Tazumal, Joya de Cerén, and Quelepa. The Pipil, of Aztec origin, were those who encountered the Spaniards. The native people called their land Cuscatlán. In 1524, Pedro de Alvarado conquered the area for Spain. Spain ruled for almost three hundred years. The native population was nearly wiped out under harsh colonial rule. For most of its early history, El Salvador was a minor province of Guatemala. Attempts by Father José Matías Delgado to gain independence from Spain in 1811 and 1814 were unsucessful , but the attempts earned Delgado national recognition. A wider regional attempt to gain independence was successful in 1821, but two years of instability followed as Mexico's emperor Agustín de Iturbide tried to take over Central America and when his empire collapsed, El Salvador and its neighbors recovered formed the United Provinces of Central America, which disbanded in 1838. El Salvador claimed sovereignty in 1841 but was dominated intermittently by Guatemala until near the end of the century. The 1871 constitution marked the beginning of the nation. During the relatively stable period that followed (1871–1931), most present-day large businesses and educational, artistic, and government institutions were formed. A new wave of upwardly mobile European and Palestinian immigrants also arrived during this time; their descendants comprise the bulk of today's affluent urban class. Much of their prosperity was built on the coffee industry. However, coffee became so successful that the government seized Pipil lands on which most of it was grown, marginalizing small farmers. In 1932, coffee prices collapsed, and already harsh treatment of natives was exacerbated, so the farmers rebelled. Many Pipil joined Augustín Farabundo Martí, a communist, in destroying property and killing scores of people. They were defeated quickly by government forces, who killed at least 10,000 native people.
7: Their culture nearly died with the massacre, as the native people feared to be thought of as anything other than Spanish. For more than 50 years, El Salvador was filled with internal strife and military dictatorships. A rebel movement born in the 1960s began to mature in the late 1970s. In 1979, a rival faction of the military overthrew the government. The next year, rebel groups formed the Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front (FMLN), named for the executed leader of the 1932 rebellion. The FMLN launched a civil war to force a change in leadership. In the midst of war, a new constitution was adopted (1983), and the Christian Democratic Party's candidate, José Napoleón Duarte, was elected president in 1984. His government was accused of serious human-rights violations, corruption, and other abuses of power. Alfredo Cristiani of the National Republican Alliance (ARENA) became president following the 1989 elections. Violence marred the elections, peace talks broke down, and the war intensified. Cristiani reopened discussions with FMLN leaders in 1990, and both sides accepted the United Nations as a mediator. Eventually, key concessions from both sides led to a 1992 UN-sponsored peace agreement between the leftist FMLN and the right-wing government. As many as 75,000 people died during the years of violence. Formal peace was declared in December 1992 amid huge celebrations. As part of the peace agreement, the FMLN became a legal political party, the size of the military was dramatically reduced, and a civilian national police force was established. The government has developed better trade relations with its neighbors, controlled inflation, and improved democratic institutions. In 2009, ARENA rule was disrupted when elections brought to power an FMLN presidential candidate, Mauricio Funes, for the first time in 20 years.
8: Themes of History | El Salvador was consistently in war with for freedom in its early years El Salvador has any resources such as coffee and petroleum Labor jobs such as cotton pickers provide jobs and money for its people and some jobs as volcano tours provide people money and work too. Since the Spanish ruled El Salvador the official language became Spanish because of El Salvador being colonized by the Spanish
9: Themes of History | Spain ruled El Salvador for almost 300 years and killed many natives They work a lot to provide money for their families health needs and for their taxes. The people want better health care because many diseases are flourishing in Salvador