FC: Romania 2011 Gracie Gill
1: The castles in Romania were built between the fourteenth and eighteenth centuries. They were built for defense purposes. They are an excellent example of the midieval heritage of this country. | The colors of the Romanian flag depict the traditions of the country. Yellow is a symbol of generosity. Red is a symbol of bravery and strength. Blue is a symbol of truth, loyalty and justice.
3: Living Conditions in Cities
4: Personal Letter | The Constitution of Romania TITLE I: FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES Articles 1-11 define Romania as a democratic republic subject to the rule of law. Power is held by the people without discrimination. The state ensures the well-being of all, protection of the environment, promotion of free enterprise, and the development of culture and science. The rights of minorities are protected. Articles 12 and 17 set forth the principles of separation of powers among the government and the Assembly of Deputies, with local authority held by local councils. Articles 13-15 establish that the military is under civilian control, that Romania seeks peace with its neighbors and will uphold international treaties. Article 16 states that no one may be deprived of citizenship except in accordance with the law. Article 18 sets forth the official language, capital, flag, and other national symbols. TITLE II: FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS, LIBERTIES, AND DUTIES OF THE CITIZENS Chapter One: General Provisions Articles 1-8 establish that all citizens, including those living abroad, are protected equally by the Constitution, which is subject to international law. Everyone has the right to appeal, and no one may be expelled from Romania on political grounds nor extradited to a nation where they could be sentenced to death. Chapter Two: Fundamental Rights and Liberties Article 1 defines the right to life as inviolable. Article 2 guarantees the right to personal security and freedom, and sets forth limits on arrest and detention. The accused are presumed innocent. Article 3 guarantees the right to freedom of movement and migration. Articles 4-7 guarantee the security of the home and private communications and freedom from illegal searches. Article 8 guarantees freedom of thought and belief and establishes separation of church and state. Articles 9 and 10 guarantee freedom of speech and artistic expression, and of the press. There is no censorship. Article 11 mandates free compulsory general education, guarantees the autonomy of universities, and provides for instruction in the native language for minorities. Article 12 guarantees the right to free access to information. Article 13 guarantees the right to elect and be elected. Articles 14 and 15 establish the right to associate and demonstrate peacefully, and to join unions. Articles 16-20 guarantee the right to choose one's profession, bans forced labor, sets forth minimum just working conditions, guarantees the right to social security and to strike. Article 21 defines property rights. Article 22 obligates the state to pursue improved quality of life for all. Articles 23 and 24 establish that families and especially children shall receive special protections. Articles 25 and 26 guarantee the right to petition and appeal to the government. Article 27 establishes the right to asylum for those who are persecuted. Chapter Three: Fundamental Duties Articles 1-4 establish the duties of citizens to be loyal to the state, to pay taxes, and to defend the republic (military service is compulsory), and the duty of officials to exercise their functions faithfully and honorably. Chapter Four: Defender of the People Articles 1-4 establish the role of the Defender of the People, one or more people appointed by the Senate to act as ombudsman or ombudsmen and safeguard the people's rights. TITLE III: PUBLIC AUTHORITIES Chapter One: The Parliament Articles 1-18 define the powers and responsibilities of the Parliament, which is the sole legislative authority, composed of the Senate and the Assembly of Deputies. Parliament passes laws, pursues the state's foreign and military policy, and may suspend the president from office as well as call a referendum on his or her dismissal. The Assembly of Deputies has control over the budget, while the Senate has responsibility for international treaties. Both appoint members to the Constitutional Council and the Superior Council of the Judiciary. Bills may be introduced by any member of the Assembly or by 10,000 citizens, and must first pass the Assembly, then the Senate. Chapter Two: The President of Romania Articles 1-9 define the powers and responsibilities of the president, who is the head of state and is elected by universal suffrage to one five-year term. The president appoints the prime minister from the majority party in the Assembly of Deputies, may return legislation to the Parliament (but only once), may dissolve the Parliament, is the head of the armed forces, and appoints three members to the Constitutional Council. Chapter Three: Administrative Authority Section One, Articles 1-12 define the powers and responsibilities of the government, which proposes national policy subject to a vote of confidence by the Assembly of Deputies at the beginning of and at any time during its administration. Section Two, Articles 1-7 define the powers and responsibilities of local government, including city councils, towns, and communes, which may pass local ordinances and levy local taxes. Chapter Four: Judicial Authority Section One, Articles 1-8 establish the court system and procedures for appointing judges, which is done by the president on the recommendation of the Superior Council of the Judiciary. Section Two, Articles 1-3 define the powers and responsibilities of the Office of the Public Prosecutor, who prosecutes crimes and upholds the law. Section Three, Articles 1-5 define the powers and responsibilities of the Superior Council of the Judiciary, which is composed of judges, legislative deputies, and Senators, and nominates judges and exercises disciplinary power over the conduct of the courts. TITLE IV: CONSTITUTIONAL COUNCIL Articles 1-6 define the powers and responsibilities of the Constitutional Council, whose nine members are appointed to a single nine-year term and rule on the constitutionality of laws, resolve conflicts between local and state authorities, and administer national referenda. TITLE V: REVISION OF THE CONSTITUTION Articles 1-3 define the circumstances under which the Constitution may be revised. This requires a two-thirds majority of both houses of Parliament and then approval by a national referendum. No changes may be made to those provisions establishing the democratic rule of law, nor to fundamental citizens' rights. TITLE VI: FINAL AND TRANSITORY PROVISIONS Articles 1-5 establish the procedures and timetable by which this Constitution shall be implemented, replacing the previous Constitution.
5: Painted Eggs | Maramures | There are many traditional villages in Romania. Maramures is an area of this country where traditional clothing can still be seen. | During Easter time, Romanian art comes alive. Real hollowed out eggs are painted with intricate patterns and secret languages known only to the region where they were painted. These beautiful eggs are sold in shops and street markets.
6: Pictures | Country Life
7: Mom and Dad, It’s been over a week since I’ve been in Bucharest. If my last letter about all of the homeless children didn’t make you uneasy, you’ll be shocked to hear this. As I moved my way out to the more rural setting of Romania, I met with some of the local farmers and workers that sell their goods to the stands along the streets of Bucharest. The houses on these farms are on the smaller side, and some don’t have sewage systems and running water, which means they must transport their every day water from the local well to their house and farm. Everyone in the family works and contributes, from grandparents to small children. Some children will even drop out of school to help their parents’ farm. Life on these farms is much different from the city, just like any other country. I didn’t spend too much time on the country side, because I came to Romania aware of where most of the problems lie, which is in the cities. When I headed back, I was so intrigued with the information I found out about the increasing population of homeless children, that I went back to an orphanage. Instead of talking with the directors, I decided to meet with a potential Romanian adopting family. What I found out from them brought a whole new problem that I hadn’t known about that Romania is facing, which is healthcare. As I talked to the young husband and wife, they explained to me that the risks of having their own child run too high, and too expensive. They fear that they will not be able to bribe the doctors enough money to assure a safe pregnancy and delivery of a child if they were to conceive on their own because healthcare is so poor in Romania. The only way to guarantee a healthy delivery is to bargain with the doctors and nurses, and this family did not want to risk going through the pain of the death of a child and have to pay for the costs of a child born with disease or birth defects. It sounds ridiculous, but this happens every day where people are hospitalized or need medical attention, but a doctor won’t look at them twice unless they are willing to offer a significantly increased amount of money. Sometime doctors will even take the bribe and run, and on delivery day or the day of surgery, they won’t show up. Living in Romania is hard for the working class and the poverty line is rising fast. With proper healthcare not being available to most, the prices of food rising, and the diseases and pollution that lingers throughout the streets make for the perfect equation for homelessness, especially in children whose parents cannot afford them. I am continually learning that life is rough in Romania, and although they are no longer a dictated country, they are still struggling to recover from the damage that was done from Nicolae Ceausescu, and form the change they have been waiting for. But with little money and high prices in all aspects of everyday life, it is hard to make those changes. Will write again soon, Gracie
8: Romania is hoping that nuclear power will reduce their dependency on other countries. Nuclear power has strong support in the Romanian government. The Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant provides electricity for the country and is part of the country's social and economical development.
9: This study of Romanian youth citizenship highlights the intolerance of the youth for individuals that are not like them. These differences could be for medical reasons, the color of their skin, or religious reasons. This intolerance of people that are indifferent is is a concern. The study also revealed that sports and volunteerism are not seen as important. Religion is seen as an important daily ritual for most youth. The findings of this study are quite inconsistent than other countries of the world.
10: Romania is known for having poor health care. Doctors must be bribed by patients in order to receive adequate health care, raising prices to thousands of dollars for surgeries and even check ups. Most Romanians cannot afford the price of health care.
11: Family and Friends, I am only in Romania for a few more days, and I have experienced so much in such little time. From the food to the culture and to meeting the people, I have definitely got my culture shock. I spent the most of my stay in impoverished towns educating myself on what day to day life is like. One town I visited was Calarasi, where human trafficking is at its worst. The town itself could fool you at first glance, like most of the towns and cities in Romania. They look like your typical cities, more working class. But when I had a chance to talk to the people who lived there, my whole viewpoint of where I was staying was changed. In the US we don’t hear much about human trafficking. It is pretty rare and only happens in the worst of neighborhoods and cities. But when we do hear about it, it is nothing to be taken lightly, wherein Romania people over look it every day, even family members of victims of trafficking. I had a really interesting conversation with a woman who decided to dedicate her life to trying to stop the problem in Romania, mostly for young women who are victimized and have no control over being taken for trafficking by men. What she told me will astound you! This woman rescues young girls who are caught in human trafficking and will house them for up to a year so they can rebuild their lives. I was informed that her funding does not come from the government or embassies in Romania, but it comes from an American ministry called “Make Way Partners” in Alabama, who are dedicated to help stop human trafficking. Usually the girls that are victims of trafficking come from poor families whose parents sell them to traffickers for hundreds of dollars, or the girls are promised jobs in other countries or promised good husbands, but then are sold to gangs and brothels in surrounding countries of Romania for thousands of dollars, and then work the streets. Once these women reach this woman’s rescue home, they are in such mad physical and mental shape. The woman told me that she is one of the few people around who care about the well being of the girls, and most people in Romania see young women as only prostitutes. | April 1, 2011
12: Works Cited | Runcanu, Laura. "Human beings are not for sale", states the anti-trafficking slogan of a 'flash mob' that took place in Cluj city, northwest Romania. N.d. World Vision. World Vision International, 27 Oct. 2009. Web. 16 Mar. 2011.
13: Works Cited | "Bran Castle (Count Dracula's Castle), Transylvania | Flickr - Photo Sharing!" Welcome to Flickr - Photo Sharing. Web. 12 Apr. 2011.