3: Professional Bull Fighting in Spain
4: Ruler: King Juan Carlos I (1975) Prime Minister: José Luis Rodriguez Zapatero (2004) Land area: 192,819 sq mi (499,401 sq km); total area: 194,896 sq mi (504,782 sq km)1 Population (2009 est.): 40,525,002 (growth rate: 0.0%); birth rate: 9.7/1000; infant mortality rate: 4.2/1000; life expectancy: 80.0; density per sq mi: 210 Capital and largest city (2003 est.): Madrid, 5,130,000 (metro. area), 3,169,400 (city proper) Other large cities: Barcelona, 1,528,800; Valencia, 741,100; Seville, 679,100 Monetary unit: Euro (formerly peseta)
5: Spain's Gorgeous Beach
6: More Facts & Figures National name: Reino de España Current government officials Languages: Castilian Spanish 74% (official nationwide); Catalan 17%, Galician 7%, Basque 2% (each official regionally) Ethnicity/race: composite of Mediterranean and Nordic types Religions: Roman Catholic 94%, other 6% Literacy rate: 98% (2003 EST.)
7: Global Empire in Spain
8: Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2007est.): $1.352 trillion; per capita $30,100. Real growth rate: 3.8%. Inflation: 2.8%. Unemployment: 8.3%. Arable land: 27%. Agriculture: grain, vegetables, olives, wine grapes, sugar beets, citrus; beef, pork, poultry, dairy products; fish. Labor force: 20.67 million; agriculture 5.3%, manufacturing, mining, and construction 30.1%, services 64.6% (2004 EST.). Industries: textiles and apparel (including footwear), food and beverages, metals and metal manufactures, chemicals, shipbuilding, automobiles, machine tools, tourism, clay and refractory products, footwear, pharmaceuticals, medical equipment. Natural resources: coal, lignite, iron ore, uranium, mercury, pyrites, fluorspar, gypsum, zinc, lead, tungsten, copper, kaolin, potash, hydropower, arable land. Exports: $194.3 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.): machinery, motor vehicles; foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, medicines, other consumer goods. Imports: $271.8 billion f.o.b. (2005 est.): machinery and equipment, fuels, chemicals, semi finished goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods, measuring and medical control instruments. Major trading partners: France, Germany, Portugal, Italy, UK, Netherlands (2004).
9: Spain is a democracy with a parliamentary form of government under a constitutional monarchy. This is a developed country with the eighth largest economy in the world based on nominal GDP. He is a member of the European Union and NATO.
10: Communications: Telephones: main lines in use: 17.336 million (1999); mobile cellular: 8.394 million (1999). Radio broadcast stations: AM 208, FM 715, shortwave 1 (1998). Radios: 13.1 million (1997). Television broadcast stations: 224 (plus 2,105 repeaters); note: these figures include 11 television broadcast stations and 88 repeaters in the Canary Islands (1995). Televisions: 16.2 million (1997). Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 56 (2000). Internet users: 7.89 million (2002). Transportation: Railways: total: 14,189 km (2002). Highways: total: 663,795 km; paved: 657,157 km (including 10,317 km of expressways); unpaved: 6,638 km (1999). Waterways: 1,045 km. Ports and harbors: Aviles, Barcelona, Bilbao, Cadiz, Cartagena, Castellon de la Plana, Ceuta, Huelva, La Coruna, Las Palmas (Canary Islands), Malaga, Melilla, Pasajes, Gijon, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Canary Islands), Santander, Tarragona, Valencia, Vigo. Airports: 152 (2002).
11: International disputes: Gibraltar residents vote overwhelmingly in referendum against “total shared sovereignty” arrangement worked out between Spain and UK to change 300-year rule over colony; Morocco protests Spain's control over the coastal enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera, the islands of Penon de Alhucemas and Islas Chamfrains, and surrounding waters; Morocco also rejected Spain's unilateral designation of a median line from the Canary Islands in 2002 to set limits to undersea resource exploration and refugee interdiction; Morocco allowed Spanish fishermen to fish temporarily off the coast of Western Sahara after an oil spill soiled Spanish fishing grounds; Portugal has periodically reasserted claims to territories around the town of Olivenza, Spain.
14: Andalucía, Spain
15: Introduction Andalusia, Spain autonomous region (1990 pop. 7,100,060), 33,675 sq mi (87,218 sq km), S Spain, on the Mediterranean Sea, the Strait of Gibraltar, and the Atlantic Ocean. Spain's largest and most populous region, it covers most of S Spain, comprising the provinces of Almeria, Cádiz, Córdoba, Granada, Huelva, Jaén, Malaga, and Seville (Seville), all named for their chief cities. Andalusia is crossed in the north by the Sierra Morena and in the south by mountain ranges that rise in the snowcapped Sierra Nevada to the highest peak in mainland Spain, Mulhacen (11,417 ft/3,480 m); between the ranges lays the fertile basin of the Guadalquivir River.
16: Andalucía and Costa del Sol
17: Economy and People Despite the natural wealth of the region, poverty is widespread; Andalusia's farm laborers are among the poorest in Europe, and many unemployed Andalusia's have migrated to more industrialized regions of Spain. With its subtropical climate, Andalusia has many affinities with Africa, which it faces. Barren lands contrast with richly fertile regions where cereals, grapes, olives, sugarcane, and citrus and other fruits are produced. Industries, based generally on local agricultural produce, include wine making, flour milling, and olive-oil extracting. Much farming has become mechanized. Cattle, bulls for the ring, and fine horses are bred. The rich mineral resources, exploited since Phoenician and Roman times, include copper, iron, zinc, and lead. Moorish influence is still strong in the character, language, and customs of the people. One of Europe's most strikingly colorful regions, Andalusia, with its tradition of bull fights, Gypsy flamenco music and dance, and Moorish architecture, provides the strongest external image of Spain, especially to North Americans. Increasing tourism has made the service industry the fastest growing economic sector.
18: Andalucía Beautiful View
19: History In the 11th cent. B.C., the Phoenicians settled there and founded several coastal colonies, notably Gadir (now Cádiz and, supposedly, the inland town of Tartness’s, which became the capital of a flourishing kingdom (sometimes identified with the biblical Tar shish). Greeks and Carthaginians came in the 6th cent. B.C.; the Carthaginians were expelled (3d cent. B.C.) By the Romans, who included S Spain in the province of Baetica? The emperors Trajan, Hadrian, and Theodosius were born in the region.
20: The Landscapes and Language of Andalucía, Spain
21: Visigoths ended Roman rule in the 5th cent. A.D., and in 711 the Moors, crossing the Strait of Gibraltar, established there the center of their western emirate (see Córdoba). Andalusia remained under Moorish rule until most of it was conquered in the 13th cent. by the kings of Castile; the Moorish kingdom of Granada survived; it, too, fell to the Catholic kings in 1492. The Moorish period was the golden age of Andalusia. Agriculture, mining, trade, and industries (textiles, pottery, and leather working) were fostered and brought tremendous prosperity; the Andalusian cities of Córdoba, Seville, and Granada, embellished by the greatest Moorish monuments in Spain, were celebrated as centers of culture, science, and the arts.
22: The Breath-Taking Landscapes of Andalucía, Spain
23: From the 16th cent. Andalusia generally suffered as Spain declined, although the ports of Seville and Cádiz flourished as centers of trade with the New World. Gibraltar was ceded to Britain in 1713, and in 1833 Andalusia was divided into the present eight provinces. With Catalonia, Andalusia was a stronghold of anarchism during the Spanish republic (est. 1931); however, it fell early to the Insurgents in the Spanish civil war of 1936–39. The region later saw recurrent demonstrations against the national government of Francisco Franco. In 1981 it became an autonomous region and in 1982 it elected its first parliament.
27: The White Island in Balearic Islands, Spain
28: Location of the Balearic Islands Coordinates: 3930N 300E39.5N 3ECoordinates: 3930N 300E39.5N 3E Country Spain Capital Palma de Mallorca Government - PresidentFrancesc Antich Oliver (PSIB-PSOE) Area(1.0% of Spain; Ranked 17th) - Total4,992 km2 (1,927.4 sq mi) Population (2008) - Total1,071,221 - Density 214.6/km2 (555.8/sq mi) - Pop. rank | 14th - Ethnic groups 79.2% Spanish, 20.8% foreign nationals ISO 3166-2 IB Official languages Catalan and Spanish Statute of AutonomyMarch 1, 2007 ParliamentCortes Generales Congress seats 8 (of 350) Senate seats 6 (of 264) WebsiteGovern de les Illes Balears
29: Palma de Mallorca in Balearic Islands, Spain
30: Balearic Islands, Spain
31: Majorca, Balearic Islands, Spain
32: Windmill in Es Mercadal, Menorca, Balearic Islands, Spain
33: Mediterranean in Balearic Islands, Spain
34: Balearic Islands Map
37: Barcelona- The City of My Dreams
38: Introduction Barcelona city (1990 pop. 4,738,354), capital of Barcelona prov. and chief city of Catalonia, NE Spain, on the Mediterranean Sea.
39: The City of Barcelona, Spain
40: Economy Situated on a plain between the Llobregat and Besós rivers and lying between mountains and the sea, Barcelona is the second largest city of Spain, its largest port, and its chief commercial and industrial center. It is also the seat of two universities and many other educational institutions. Textiles, machinery, automobiles, locomotives, airplanes, and electrical equipment are the chief manufactures. International banking and finance are also important.
41: Las Ramblas Placa Reial in Barcelona, Spain
42: Points of Interest A handsome modern city, Barcelona has broad avenues, bustling traffic, and striking new buildings. The old city, with winding, narrow streets (Roman walls are still visible), has many historic structures, including the imposing Cathedral of Santa Eulalia (13th–15th cent.) with its fine cloisters, the Church of Santa María del Mar, the city hall, and the Lonja or exchange. Also notable is the Church of the Sagrada Familia (begun 1882), designed by Antonio Gaudi. Barcelona is the site of the Fine Arts Museum of Catalonia, the Contemporary Art Museum, museums of Miró's, Picasso's and Dali's works, and a noted opera house.
43: Agbar Tower in Barcelona, Spain
44: History Barcelona was founded by the Carthaginians, and, according to tradition, it supposedly derives its name from the great Barca family of Carthage. The city flourished under the Romans and Visigoths, fell to the Moors (8th cent.), and was taken (801) by Charlemagne, who included it in the Spanish March. In the 9th to 10th cent. The march became independent under the leadership of the powerful counts of Barcelona, who wrested lands to the south from the Moors, thus acquiring all Catalonia. The counts also won suzerainty over several fiefs in S France.
45: The marriage of Count Raymond Berengaria IV to the heiress of Aragón united (1137) the two lands under one dynasty; the title, count of Barcelona, was subsequently borne by the kings of Aragón, who made the city their capital, and later the kings of Spain. Under its strong municipal government Barcelona vastly expanded both its Mediterranean trade, becoming a rival of Genoa and Venice, and its cloth industry and flourished as a banking center. Reaching its peak around 1400, the city later shared in the general decline of Catalonia. It was repeatedly (1640–52, 1715, 1808–14) occupied by the French.
46: Barcelona was always the stronghold of Catalan separatism and was the scene of many insurrections. It was the center of the Catalan revolt (1640–52) against Philip IV of Spain. Later it also became the Spanish center of anarchism, syndicalism, and other radical political beliefs. It was the capital of the Catalan autonomous government (1932–39) and the seat of the Spanish Loyalist government from Oct., 1937, until its fall to Franco on Jan. 26, 1939. Barcelona remains a center of separatism and political liberalism; in the 1950s, it was the scene of sporadic demonstrations against the Franco regime. Present-day Barcelona is a cultural center of Spain, and since the 1970s it has reasserted its Catalan linguistic character. It was the site of the 1992 Summer Olympics. Bibliography See A. Boyd, The Essence of Catalonia (1988), L. Permanyer, Barcelona Art Nouveau (1999).
47: Teatre del Liceu in Barcelona, Spain
48: Teatre Del Liceu This beautiful opera house is founded in 1847 and has retained its role as a culture and arts centre. It is one of the city symbols and worth to visit whether for an opera or other cultural expression or just to enjoy the beauty of the building. For more information look on the website of Teatre del Liceu.
49: La Sagrada Familia in Barcelona, Spain
50: La Sagrada Familia To see La Sagrada Familia without construction and cranes is very hard; you have to be lucky. Since the church is still unfinished Barcelona keeps working on it. In Barcelona you hear echoes of a forever ongoing project since new sections are being designed throughout the years. If you visit Barcelona and find La Sagrada Familia without cranes and scaffolding it probably doesn't mean that the project is finished but that the local government has temporarily run out of money for the project. If you happen to get lucky and visit Barcelona during such a period, be sure to enjoy it and take a lot of pictures!
51: La Sagrada Familia is the pride of Barcelona. La Sagrada Familia is located in the center of Barcelona and surrounded by buildings and a small park. From the park there's a magnificent view of La Sagrada Familia. The four gigantic towers make it one of the most impressive churches in the world. La Sagrada Familia has two entrances, both in different styles. Here you can clearly see the large period of time that has passed since the beginning of construction.
52: Gaudi Barcelona in Barcelona, Spain
53: Gaudi Barcelona Besides Gaudi Barcelona it is one big concentration of beautiful architecture. Classic and modern meet each other in a very special way. A picture says more than a thousand words, but not even the best picture can show you the special feeling that Barcelona gives you!
54: La Marina de Barcelona in Barcelona, Spain
55: La Marina de Barcelona Being located at the Mediterranean Sea makes Barcelona a perfect location to visit by yacht. As you can see on the picture a lot of sailors moor here giving it a less pushy more sea worthy look.
58: Canary Islands
59: Country Spain Capital Santa Cruz de Tenerife and Las Palmas de Gran Canaria Government - PresidentPaulino Rivero (CC) Area (1.5% of Spain; Ranked 13th) - Total7,447 km2 (2,875.3 sq mi) Population (2009) - Total2,098,593 - Density 281.8/km2 (729.9/sq mi) - Pop. rank 8th - Ethnic groups 85.7% Spanish, (Canarian and Peninsulares), 14.3% foreign nationals ISO 3166-2 ES-CN | Anthem Hymn of the Canaries Official languages Spanish Statute of AutonomyAugust 16, 1982 ParliamentCortes Generales Congress seats 15 (of 350) Senate seats 13 (of 264) WebsiteGobierno de Canarias
60: Beautiful Beach Canary Islands, Spain
61: Canary Islands Mountain
62: Las Palmas, Canary Islands
63: Fuerteventura Canary Islands
64: Canary Islands
67: The Mosque of Cordoba
68: Cordoba was founded by the Romans and due to its strategic importance as the highest navigable point of the Guadalquivir River, it became a port city of great importance, used for shipping Spanish olive oil, wine and wheat back to Ancient Rome. The Romans built the mighty bridge crossing the river, now called "El Puente Romano". But Cordoba's hour of greatest glory was when it became the capital of the Moorish kingdom of El-Andalus, and this was when work began on the Great Mosque, or "Mezquita", which – after several centuries of additions and enlargements – became one of the largest in all of Islam.
69: Cordoba, Spain
70: When the city was re-conquered by the Christians in 1236, the new rulers of the city were so awed by its beauty that they left it standing, building their cathedral in the midst of its rows of arches and columns, and creating the extraordinary church-mosque we see today.
71: Roman Bridge, Guadalquivir River, Cordoba, Spain
72: As well as the unique mosque-cathedral, Cordoba's treasures include the Alcazar, or Fortress, built by the Christians in 1328; the Calahorra Fort, originally built by the Arabs, which guards the Roman Bridge, on the far side of the river from the Mezquita, and the ancient Jewish Synagogue, now a museum. Cordoba's medieval quarter, once the home of the Jewish community, is called "La Judería" (The Jewry), a labyrinth of winding, narrow streets, shady flower-filled courtyards and picturesque squares such as La Plaza del Potro. In early May, homeowners proudly festoon their patios with flowers to compete for the city's "most beautiful courtyard" contest.
73: The Mezquita in Cordoba, Spain
74: The Moors-The Creole Genesis in Cordoba, Spain
75: City of The Great Mosque in Cordoba, Spain
76: Mezquita de Cordoba
77: Roman Monument, Cordoba, Spain
81: Jávea desde el Montgó in Costa Blanca
82: Costa Blanca (English: White Coast) refers to the over 200 kilometers of coastline belonging to the Province of Alienate in Spain. The name "Costa Blanca" was devised as a promotional name used by BEA when they launched their air service (for 38.16s.-) between London and Valencia in 1957. It has a well developed tourism industry and is a popular destination for British and German tourists. It extends from the towns of Denia in the north, beyond which lies the Costa dels Tarongers, to Pillar de la Horadada in the south, beyond which lies the Costa Calida. It includes the major tourist destinations of Benidorm, Alienate and Javea.
83: Penyal d'Ifac in Costa Blanca
84: History In 711 A.D. the Moors invaded Spain through Gibraltar and would occupy the region of Alicante by 718 A.D. Their occupation was to last nearly four hundred years and would mould the landscape of the region. The Moors introduced irrigation and the planting of oranges, peaches and almond orchards. The terraces seen on the hillsides throughout the region are an everlasting Moor legacy. The Moors would not be completely expelled until 1492, when Ferdinand and Isabella, the Catholic monarchs, finally took control of Granada. In 1095 Spain became part of the North African Berber Empire and for another four hundred years the Moors and Christians would fight over control of Spanish soil. Alicante was gradually regained from the Moors in 1248 by Jaime I of Aragon. After their expulsion, the Moors continued to attack Spain.
85: Between 1500-c1650 Berber pirate attacks were frequent all along the Mediterranean coastline. The first Spanish constitution was written in 1812 and following this the provincial boundaries were established, establishing the regions including Alicante and Murcia as they are today. In 1923, Miguel Primo de Rivera took control of Spain as a dictator, eventually forcing Alfonso XIII into exile. The Spanish Civil War, (1936-1939) would divide the country. Alicante and Murcia would remain supporters of the Republican movement. In 1939, General Francisco Franco, the leader of the Nationalists took control of Spain. During the 1960s and 1970s tourism exploded throughout the region to nearly 4,000,000 visitors a year.
86: Calpe, Costa Blanca
87: Benidorm, Costa Blanca, Spain
88: Altea, Costa Blanca Spain
89: La Vila Joiosa, Costa Blanca Spain
90: Monjas-Santa Faz Place in Alicante In Costa Blanca, Spain
91: Coveta Fum
92: El Montgó, Costa Blanca
93: Denia Fortification, Costa Blanca
94: Altamira Castle in Elche in Costa Blanca