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Turkey, May 2011

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S: TURKEY, MAY 2011

BC: Acknowledgement: Thanks to our friends, the Shermans, who invited us to make the trip with them and especially to Michael who shared his photographs with us. Some are included in this book. | Turkey May, 2011

FC: Turkey, May 2011 Layers of History, Art, Culture

1: TURKEY MAY 2011 | Istanbul Izmir Pergamon Foca Ephesus Kusadasi Priene Didyma Bodrum | Caunos Fethiye Pinara Saklikent Kas Termessos Antalya Perge Aspendos | Konya Sultanhan Cappadocia Derinkuyu Balloon Ride Goreme Zelve Avenos Istanbul

2: Pergamon | Perched on a hilltop, Pergamon is a dramatic site. Settled by Greeks in the 8th century BC, it prospered under the Pergemene dynasty from 263 to 241 BC and was one of the world's great learning centers. It was bequeathed to Rome in 133 BC. Galen was born here in 129AD and established the medical center known as the Asclepieum. | 2

3: Above: Temple of Trajan Ruins Left: Introduction, Overlook, Library Ruins | 3 | Pergamon

4: 4 | Pergamon

5: Left: Great Theater, 10,000 Seats Above: Asclepion Ruins | Pergamon | 5

6: 6 | Pergamon

7: The Small Theater near Asclepion | Pergamon | 7

8: 8 | Foca

9: Left: Bulbul Yuvasi Boutique Hotel Above: Dinner and ice cream in the fishing village of Foca. | Foca | 9

10: Ephesus | 10

11: Ephesus | A Greek city was first built here in 1000 BC. The area seen today was built in the 4th century BC by Alexander The Great's successor. Under the Romans, Ephesus became the chief port on the Aegean. When the harbor silted up the city declined. Two councils of early Christians were held here in AD 431 and 439. St. John the Evangelist came here in AD 37 with Christ's mother, Mary. Above and overleaf: Church of St. John | 11

12: Ephesus | 12

13: Ephesus | Left: Church of St. John, altar, baptysmal Above: Floor mosaics and stonework | 13

14: Ephesus | Top: Isa Bey Mosque, Seljuk Dynasty, 1375 Bottom: Priape, Bes or Priapus, Ephesus Museum | 14

15: Statues of Artemis, goddess of fertility with signs of the Zodiac on necklace. The Tempe Of Artemis was said to be one of the 7 wonders of the world. | Ephesus | 15

16: Ephesus | 16

17: Artifacts in the Ephesus Museum including floor mosaics. Top Left: From the Fountain of Poillio. Bottom Left: From the Fountain of Laecanius Bassus, 1-2 nd C. A.D. Immediate Left: Marcus Aurelius. | Ephesus | 17

18: Ephesus | 18

19: Opposite and above: Small Odeum Theatre, Upper Ephesus, 150 A.D. Top right: Prytaneion (Municipal Building) 3rd C. B.C. | Ephesus | 19

20: Ephesus | Clockwise from top left: Nike, goddess of victory; Domitian Square & Pollio Fountain Gate; Along the Domitian Temple Road; Tomb of Memmius | 20

21: Temple of Hdrian, 138 A.D. Latrine break! | Ephesus | 21

22: Ephesus | 22

23: World's biggest jigsaw puzzle Terrace houses opposite the Temple of Hadrian | Ephesus | 23

24: Ephesus | 24

25: Ephesus | 25

26: Ephesus | Library of Celsus, AD 114-117. Statue is Arete (virtue); far right Sophia (wisdom). | 26

27: Ephesus | 27

28: Ephesus | 28

29: Kusadasi | Facing page: 25,000 seat great theater, Agora. On to Charisma Hotel, Kusadasi. | 29

30: Priene | Priene was a member of the Ionian League, 12 city states first settled by Greek colonists before 1000 BC. The Temple of Athena built in the 4th century BC was supervised and financed by Alexander the Great. The council chamber could hold 640 delegates. Lower left above: Clepsidra (water timer). | 30

31: Priene | 31

32: Priene | 32

33: Didyma | Didyma's Temple of Apollo built in the 7th century BC was a leading Greek oracle. It once had 108 huge Ionic columns but only 3 survive. Destroyed by the Persians in the 6th century BC it was restored by Alexander the Great in 350 BC. Later converted to a church it was destroyed by earthquake in 1493. | 33

34: Didyma | 34

35: Didyma | 35

36: Didyma | 36

37: Didyma | 37

38: Euromos, Temple of Zeus, 117-138 AD | 38

39: Bodrum was the location of the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus, one of the 7 Wonders of the Ancient World. and now a vibrant tourist mecca. The Castle of St. Peter was begun in 1406 by the Knights of St. John. After being conquered by the Ottomans it became a prison. It now features the incredible Underwater Archaeological Museum. Above: Marina Vista Hotel | Bodrum | 39

40: Bodrum | 40

41: Bodrum | 41

42: Bodrum | Underwater Archaeological Museum, Bodrum | 42

43: Bodrum | Aboard a Gulet | 43

44: Sakartepe | Hyalkahvesi Restaurant Sakartepe, Turkey | 44

45: Dalyan Estuary Near Caunus | Lycian Tombs, 4th Century AD Left: Ataturk Statue, Dalyan | 45

46: Caunus | Roman Theater, 20,000 seats, 2nd C. BC | 46

47: Caunus | Byzantine Ruins | 47

48: Caunus | Bottom Left, Ottoman Fortress | 48

49: Caunus Area | 49

50: Fethiye | Ece Saray Marina Resort Hotel Upper Left: View from our room Lower Left: Evil Eyes Everywhere | 50

51: Pinara | Pinara was one of the 5 major cities in the Lycian League. Hundreds of tombs were carved on the steep eastern slope of the upper acropolis. The lower acropolis of a later time is comprised of the odeon, temple-type buildings and numerous tombs. Most of the rock tombs are house-type - an insight into Lycian architecture. | 51

52: Pinara | 52

53: Pinara | 53

54: Pinara | Above: Temple of Aphrodite with heart shaped columns and penis rock relief. Below: Greek theater | 54

55: Saklikent Gorge | Trout Restaurant | 55

56: Tlos (Xanthos) | Sarcophagus, 4th C BC; Xanthian obelisk, 400 BC; Harpy Tomb 475 BC. Xanthos was the capital of the Lycian Federation, 8th Century BC Below: Amphitheatre, 2nd C AD | 56

57: Tlos (Xanthos) | Above: Street once lined with commercial shops. | 57

58: Kas | Sultanpark Boutique Hotel, Kas | 58

59: Kas | 59

60: Kas | 60

61: Kas | Aboard a Gulet | 61

62: Taurus Mountains | Rural Turkey Leaving Kas Traveling through the Taurus Mountains to Termessos and Antalya | 62

63: Taurus Mountains | 63

64: Termessos | Gulluk Dag National Park with the Psidian fortress city of Termessos. High in the mountains, Alexander the Great could not conquer it. | 64

65: Termessos | 65

66: Termessos | Theater, 300 BC, 4000 seats Above right: Temple of Heroes; Lower right: Belgian hikers going up | 66

67: Antalya | Cemil's family and home | 67

68: Antalya | Above Left: Hotel room view at the Talya Hotel. Above: Mardan Palace Hotel, Antalya | 68

69: Perge | First settled in the 12th century BC, Perge became one of the wealthiest and most beautiful cities in Anatolia. After its decline it was abandoned in the late 7th century having passed through Persian and then Roman rule. Above: 12,000 seat stadium Right: Stadium entrances | 69

70: Perge | Top Left: Agora (marketplace) Bottom: Shop entrance | 70

71: Perge | Above: Mosaic Shop Floor | Above: Colonnaded street. | Below: Monument to city's benefactress, Plancia Magna | 71

72: Perge | Above: Upper Nymphaeum, 130-150 AD, with statue of river god Kestros | 72

73: Perge | Above: Store fronts along colonnaded street. Below Left: Water channel Below right: Drain plug | 73

74: Perge | Above and below: South Baths Above right: Frigidarium floor Right: Roman Gate, 4th century BC | 74

75: Perge | Lunch, Anadolu Park Restaurant Near Perge | 75

76: Aspendos | 76

77: Aspendos | Aspendos Theater with 15,000 seats is the best preserved ancient theater in Asia Minor. Built during the reign of Marcus Aurelius, 161-181 AD, it was repaired in the 13th century and is used for concerts today. | 77

78: Aspendos | Roman aqueduct, 2nd half of 3rd century | 78

79: Antalya Museum | Top Left: Sarcophagus of Domitias Julianus and his wife Domita Philiska, Bottom: Garland Sarcophagus, 2nd C. Top Right: Plancia Magna Statue. Bottom Left: Statue of Hadrian. Antalya Museum | 79

80: Antalya Archaeological Museum | The Dionysos Sarcophagus. The scene of ecstasy or the Stayrs and Maenads who form the regiment of Dionysos, 3rd century AD. | 80

81: Antalya | World's Best Baklava - Gulluoglu Baklava Shop | 81

82: Taurus Mountains, Konya | Aboard a Gulet | 82

83: Konya | Museum of Wood and Masonry, built 1264 as a school; madrasah until end of 19th century | 83

84: Konya | Konya, dating back to the Hitites (Bronze Age) is the most religiously conservative city in Turkey and has been home of the Whirling Dervishes for the last 800 years. The Mevlana Museum holds the tomb of Jelaleddin Rumi, a Muslim poet, mystic, and great spiritual leader. | 84

85: Konya | Konya Gold Market | 85

86: Konya | 86

87: Konya | 87

88: Konya | 88

89: Konya | Mevlana Museum | 89

90: Konya | Mevlana Cultural Center and Museum | 90

91: Konya | 91

92: Konya | 92

93: Konya | Dedeman Hotel | 93

94: Aksaray | Sultanhani Caravanseri, 13th C Courtyard surrounded by stables, mosque, baths and lodgings. | 94

95: Urgup | Esbelli Evi Cave Hotel | 95

96: Cappadocia | Hike to Phallic Valley | 96

97: Cappadocia | Under the Mistletoe | 97

98: Cappadocia | 98

99: Cappadocia | That's why they call it "Phallic Valley" | 99

100: At the end of the hike - coffee anyone? | Cappadocia | 100

101: Urgup from Dimrit Restaurant | Cappadocia | 101

102: Cappadocia | Derinkuyu, the biggest of 36 under ground cities where Christians found refuge was 8 levels deep with stables, wine press, living quarters and a church. | 102

103: Cappadocia | 103

104: Cappadocia | 104

105: Cappadocia | 10th Century Eski Gümü Monastery | 105

106: Cappadocia | 106

107: Cappadocia | Turkish Coffee - not bad! | 107

108: Cappadocia | Uchisar | 108

109: Cappadocia | 109

110: Cappadocia | 110

111: Cappadocia | Uchisar | 111

112: Cappadocia | At Cinar Rug Manufacturing | 112

113: Cappadocia | Ziggy's Fine Restaurant and Gallery, Urgup | 113

114: Cappadocia | 114

115: Cappadocia | 115

116: Cappadocia | 116

117: Cappadocia | 117

118: Cappadocia | 118

119: Cappadocia | 119

120: Cappadocia | 120 | Tufon - Always There!

121: Cappadocia | Hike to Hidden Church | 121

122: Cappadocia | 122

123: Cappadocia | 123

124: Cappadocia | Hidden Church inside the Hill | 124

125: Cappadocia | 125

126: Cappadocia | Karanlik church, 11th century fescoes | 126

127: Cappadocia | Goreme Open-Air Museum: Dating from the 9th century onwards, the valley's 30 or more churches were built of the soft volcanic tuff. Many contain Byzantine frescoes depicting scenes from the old and new testaments. The valley is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. | 127

128: Cappadocia | Uchisar | 128

129: Cappadocia | Uchisar | 129

130: Cappadocia | 130

131: Cappadocia | 131

132: Cappadocia | 132

133: Cappadocia | Dinner at the home of Cemil's friend Mustafa | 133

134: Istanbul | Istanbul (Byzantium and Constantinople), the largest Turkish city with 9 million people is the nation's cultural, economic, and financial center. Extending both on the European and Asian sides of the Bosphorus strait, it is the only city in the world on two continents. The greater Istanbul metropolitan area has 13 million residents ranking it third in Europe after those of London and Moscow. During its long history, Istanbul has served as the capital of the Roman Empire (330–395), the Byzantine Empire (395–1204 and 1261–1453), the Latin Empire (1204–1261), and the Ottoman Empire (1453–1922). Hagia Soophia (right) was built on the site of Byzantium's acropolis by Emperor Justinian in 537 AD. It was the largest church ever built until St Peter's Basilica was constructed in Rome a thousand years later. Mehmet the Conqueror proclaimed it a mosque soon after his conquest of the city from the Byzantines in 1453. | 134

135: Istanbul | Hagia Sophia | 135

136: Istanbul | Hagia Sophia | 136

137: Istanbul | Hagia Sophia | 137

138: Istanbul | 138 | Hagia Sophia

139: Istanbul | Blue Mosque | Egyptian Obelisk, 1500 BC; Base 4th C AD | 139

140: Istanbul | Blue Mosque, built 1609-16 | 140

141: Istanbul | 141

142: Istanbul | 142

143: Istanbul | 143

144: Istanbul | Blue Mosque | 144

145: Istanbul | Nevizade Sokak, the best known street in Istanbul's Beyoglu section. Imroz Restaurant has been serving intellectuals for over 60 years. | 145

146: Istanbul | Fish Market; Fruit & Vegetable Market Below: Inci Profiterole Shop; Halvah Shop | 146

147: Istanbul | Istiklal Street; Roasting Chestnuts | 147

148: Istanbul | 148 | Sogukcesme Street; houses against city wall | Below: Gate of Salutations | Building of Topkapi Palace began in 1459. It was the primary residence of the Ottoman Sultans for about 400 years (1465-1856). Its 4 main courtyards held up to 4000 people with mosques, a hospital, bakeries, and a mint. It was converted into a museum of the imperial era in 1924 at the end of the Ottoman empire.

149: Istanbul | 149 | Left: Entrance to Treasury Museum and entry line; Right: Privy Chamber

150: Istanbul | 150 | Circumcision Room Iznik Tiles, 15th-17th Century

151: Istanbul | 151 | Baghdad Pavilion

152: Istanbul | 152 | Harem Entrance | Concubine Apartments

153: Istanbul | 153

154: Istanbul | 154 | Crown Prince Apartments

155: Istanbul | 155 | Right Top & Bottom: Yesil Ev Hotel Bottom Left: Artisan Shops, Traditional Arts and Crafts

156: Istanbul | 156 | Basilica Cistern

157: Istanbul | 157 | Grand Bazaar, begun in 1453 More than 3000 shops and stalls

158: Istanbul | 158

159: Istanbul | 159 | Spice Bazaar

160: Istanbul | 160

161: Istanbul | 161 | Bosphorus Cruise

162: Istanbul | 162 | Top: Dolmabace Palace Kempinski Bottom right: Four Seasons Bosphorus

163: Istanbul | 163 | Above: 19th Century Yalis (mansions) along the Boslphorus Below Left: Fortress, Built 1752; Below Right: Galata University

164: Istanbul | 164 | Church of St. Saviour in Chora, 11th century, rebuilt 1315-1321, filled with Byzantine mosaics and frescoes.

165: Istanbul | 165

166: Istanbul | 166 | The Old Jewish Quarter

167: Istanbul | 167 | Ahrita Sephardic Synagogue Dating from Early 15th Century | Below: Turkish Pharmacist

168: Istanbul | 168 | Left: Greek Orthodox Church Right: Suleymaniye Mosque

169: Istanbul | 169 | Completed 1557, restored 2010; Istabul's largest and grandest mosque.

170: Istanbul | 170 | Darüzziyafe; Turkish-Ottoman Cuisine Sulaymaniye Mosque, Built 1550-1557

171: Istanbul | 171

172: Istanbul | 172 | Our last evening meal in Istanbul at Yesil Ev, a mansion built between Hagia Sophia and Blue Mosque in the 19th century. Restored 1984 and opened as hotel and restaurant. Top Right: View from Ottoman Imperial Hotel

173: Istanbul | 173 | Above: Hagia Sophia from Ottoman Imperial Top Left: Blue Mosque Bottom Left: New Mosque on The Bosphorus

174: Turkey Wildflowers | 174

175: People of Turkey | 175

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