S: Francescangeli Wextern United States Tour, 2011
BC: THE END July, 2011 | Created by Vincent Francescangeli Jr.
FC: Outdoors | Motorcoach Tour of The American West July 2011 | Old Faithful | Crazy Horse | Mt. Rushmore | Yellowstone | Bison
1: Rapid City, South Dakota | Rapid City Airport | The Radisson Rapid City | Rapid City Brewing Company | Saturday, July 16, 2011
2: THE CRAZY HORSE MEMORIAL | The Crazy Horse Memorial has been under construction since 1948. It is far from completion. Crazy Horse was a Lakota warrior. The statue was commissioned by Lakota elder, Henry Standing Bear. The Sulptor was Korczak Ziokowski. It is still operated by his wife Ruth and her family. They run The Crazy Horse Memorial Foundation. It is a non-profit organization and has accepted no public funds. At this moment in time, if completed, it will be the worlds largest sculpture. | Sunday, July 17, 2011
3: The Crazy Horse Memorial Foundation has accepted no funds from the federal government to complete this project. In fact, explosive manufacturers donate explisives which are due to expire. | THUNDERHEAD MOUNTAIN, S.D.
4: Mount Rushmore South Dakota | Sunday, July 17, 2011
5: Mount Rushmore is near Keystone, South Dakota. It was sculpted by Gutzon Borglum and his son Lincoln. South Dakotan historian, Doane Robinson conceived the idea of carving the likenesses of famous people in the Black Hills region as a tourist attraction. The sculptor decided on using national presdients. The sculpting started in 1927 and was completed in 1934. Of note, Thomas Jefferson was initially to the right of Goorge Washington. However, a fault was discovered in the granite. Therefore, Thomas Jeffersons head which had already been started, had to be blown off the mountatin and Jefferson was then placed to Washingtons left.
6: The evening lighting ceremony at Mt. Rushmore is patriotic. It includes a film, "Freedom: America's Lasting Legacy". This is followed by a formal flag folding ceremony during which all military veterans are asked to participate on stage.
7: Buffalo Run | Monday was a travel day. We left early in the morning and took in a lot of scenery. This is a buffalo run. These were holes or ravines which were used by Native Americans to trap buffalo. They were stampeded toward the hole. The buffalo could not stop fast enough and the first to arrive would fall into the ravine and break their legs. They would then be killed and butchered. The Native Americans used every part of the buffalo. They even used the urinary bladder as a canteen. | Monday, July 18, 2011
8: Devils Tower Fifty Miles away | Industry that we see on the way includes natural gas, oil wells and coal strip mining
9: The Sheridan Inn, Sheridan Wyoming. Built in 1892. Shortly after construction, the inn was purchased by William F. "Buffalo Bill" Cody. Buffalo Bill would hold auditions for his show on the inns front lawn. The inn currently is a National Historic Landmark and is undergoing a full renovation.
11: The Battle of the Little Bighorn is also known as Custers Last Stand. It occurred on June 25th and 26th, 1876 near the Little Bighorn River in the Montana Territory. This was a decisive battle of the Great Sioux War of 1876. The US Seventh Calvary, including The Custer Battalion suffered a severe defeat. Five of the Seventh's companies were annihilated. Custer was killed, as were two of his brothers, a nephew, and a brother in law. Total U.S. deaths were 268. Fifty Five were wounded. Only one horse survived. The horses were largely shot to provide a barrier to hide behind in order to fight the indians. | Monday, July 18, 2011
12: Little Bighorn Battlefield
13: BILLINGS< MONTANA | The Crowne Plaza | Yellowstone Museum in Billings with a Kenmore Automobile. Built before Sears bought Kenmore | Monday, July 18, 2011
14: Cody, Wyoming has a population of slightly more than 8000 people. The major industry is tourism. The town was made famous by Buffalo Bill Cody. | En route to Cody, Wyoming | Tuesday, July 19, 2011
15: Tuesday July 19th, 2011
17: The Buffalo Bill Historical Center is a complex of four museums. It includes the Plains Indian Museum, The Whitney Gallery of Western Art, The Cody Firearms Museum, and the Draper Natural History Museum | Buffalo Hide Coat | Ride em Cowgirl | Tuesday, July 19, 2011
18: The Buffalo Bill Dam
19: A concrete arch gravity dam on the Shoshone River in Wyoming. The reservoir has the same name. Buffalo Bill Cody founded the local town of Cody and owned much of the land now covered by the reservoir.
20: NEXT STOP YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK | Leaving the Buffalo Bill Reservoir | Tuesday, July 19, 2011
21: Yellowstone Lake We arrived during a strong shower. Hot Springs (right) | Yellowstone Lake with storm moving in from the west. | Yellowstone Lake is 7,732 feet above sea level. It covers 136 square miles. It is the largest fresh water lake above 7000 feet in North America
22: Lake Yellowstone Hotel. Completed 1891. It was redesigned in 1903 by Robert Reamer, architect of the Old Faithful Inn. Restored in 1990 to the elegance of the 1920's.
25: Old Faithful Inn built 1904. Designed by Robert Reamer. The hotel was built during the winter. Temperatures can drop to 60 degrees below zero. The nails were heated to prevent the carpenters from getting frostbitten fingers. Moving the logs and stones to build the inn was easier in the winter using sleds. No roads to Old Faithful existed at that time. | Tuesday, July 19, 2011
26: Old Faithful Inn was constructed from lodgepole pines of various shapes and sizes. | Grand Entrance
27: Grand Fireplace | Inn Restaurant
28: These scenes are outside the Old Faithful Inn. The hot springs and geysers are everywhere. The steam and water is constantly flowing and astounding to witness. | Wednesday, July 20, 2011
29: OLD FAITHFUL | Old Faithful erupts every ninety minutes. In the 1950's it erupted every 60 minutes.
30: The massive cone is a sign of old age. Eruptions have likely been happening for thousands of years. | Wednesday, July 20, 2011
31: These features are found in the upper geyser basin which is adjacent to The Old Faithful Inn. This is Crested Pool. Ten Thousand such pools exist in the park. | Hot Springs are the most common feature found in Yellowstone. | Water boils at 199 degrees in Yellowstone due to the altitude. | The Yellowstone Caldera is sometimes known as a supervolcano. The caldera is in Northwestern Wyoming where Yellowstone is located. In this area light, hot molten rock is very close to the surface.
32: Giant Geyser
33: Eruptions of Giant Geyser (Left) can reach heights of 200 to 250 feet in the air. They are eratic in timing. They can last up to 1 or 2 hours at a time. Grotto Geyser (RIGHT) | Grotto Geyser
34: Sawmill is the largest geyser in the Sawmill Complex of Upper Geyser Basin. It has a delay of one to three hours between eruptions. It gets its name from the whirring sound it makes when it erupts.
35: Fountain Geyser is a geyser in the Lower Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park in the United States. Fountain erupts 75-220 feet (23-67m) high with internals that vary from 9 to 15 hours, and has duration of about 30 minutes. | Wednesday, July 20, 2011
36: Fumaroles are vents or openings in the earths crust. The term comes from the word "fumus" in latin which means smoke. THrough the opening comes vented gases including sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, hydrongen sulfide and others. These are often found in the region of volcanos. There are an estimated 4000 fumaroles in Yellowstone.
37: The Fountain Paint Pots are found in Yellowstone's Lower Geyser Basin. The name comes from the reds, browns and yellows of the mud in the area. Rising gases cause bubbling action that can be seen in the photos.
38: The hot springs of Yellowstone are generated by molten rock below the surface. This heats the ground water and it percolates to the surface. | Wednesday, July 20, 2011
39: En route to The Grand Canyon of Yellowstone
40: Wednesday, July 20, 2011
41: The Grand Canyon of Yellowstone from Lookout Point. Lower Yellowstone Falls. 308 Feet High. (Niagara Falls is 167 Feet High)
42: Upper Yellowstone Falls 109 Feet High
43: Yellowstone Wildlife and Vegetation. We witnessed beautiful scenery throughout the park. | Stopping Traffic. The Bison seem to have the right of way.
44: The Raven grows to 25 inches in height. They live of up to 15 years. They mate for life and will establish and defend a terrtory. They can live up to 40 years. They will feed on grains, fruits, berries and also small animals | Female Elk | Black Bear | Grizzly Bear | Wednesday, July 20, 2011
45: Bison Herd | Wild Flowers
46: The scenery at Yellowstone is breathtaking. Every vista is more spectacular than the last. To the right is fire lookout. The Yellowstone forest fires of 1988 burned 794,000 acres affecting 36% of the park. Few large mammals were killed during the fires.
47: Wednesday, July 20, 2011
48: Mammoth Hot Springs. | A series of fractures form the plumbing system allowing underground water to reach the surface. Limestone in the ground is leached out by the hot water and carbone dioxide which forms carbonic acid. This provides the color and it deposits travertine which is the rock that forms the hot springs at this location.
49: BEAUTIFUL AMERICA | What a beautiful view! | Algae living in the warm water creates the shades of brown, orange red, and green
50: Liberty Cap is 37 Feet tall and was created by a hot spring that was acitive in this location for many years. It is now dormant. The water was under enough pressure to raise it to great heights. This allowed the mineral deposits to build slowly for hundreds of years. | Mammoth Hot Springs | Wednesday, July 20, 2011
51: These springs constantly change. They have irregular undergound "plumbing" and water to percolate to the surface at different locations at different times.
52: Mammoth Springs Yellowstone National Park
53: Views of Palette Spring at Mammoth Hot Springs | Wednesday, July 20, 2011
54: Mammoth Hot Springs, Palette Spring | Devils Thumb at Palette Spring
55: Kepler Cascade is located about 2.5 miles south of Old Faithful. This waterfall is on the Firehole River. The cascades drop about 150 feet over several drops. The longest is 50 feet. They were named after Kepler Hoyt in 1881 by the park superintendent. Kepler Hoyt was the son of Wyoming's territorial governor, John Wesley Hoyt. | Thursday, July 21, 2011
56: Kepler Cascade Leaving Yellowstone July 21, 2011
57: Jenny Lake, Grand Teton National Park in Wyoming. This lake is the result of glacier activity 12,000 years ago. Fifty Two square miles of the Grand Tetons National Park were donated by John D.Rockefeller. | Thursday, July 21, 2011
60: Mount Moran. The Black Dike was formed when magma was forced up into a large crack. This molten rock solidified becoming dark igneous rock called diabase. Erosion of the surrounding rock makes this vertical 150 foot dike clearly visible. | Thursday, July 21, 2011
61: THE GRAND TETONS
62: The Chapel of the Transfiguration is a small log chapel in the Grand Teton National Park in the community of Moose. The chapel was built at this location to frame the Cathedral Group of peaks in a large window over the altar. The chapel was built in 1925 and is operated by St. Johns Episcopal Church in Jackson.
63: Thursday, July 21, 2011
64: The Snake River Raft Tour was a highlight of our trip. The rugged Tetons rise from the rolling plains adjacent to the river. The Oregon Trail was established in the mid 19th century and it followed the course of the Snake River
65: Thursday, July 21, 2011
68: Afton, Wyoming has a population 1,818 based on the 2000 census. It has the largest Elk Antler Arch in the world. It consists of 3,011 elk antlers and weighs 15 tons. The towns water supply comes from a cold water geyser. This geyser provides water for the whole town.
69: The National Oregon/California Trail Center. Montpelier, Idaho | Friday, July 22, 2011
70: Mormon Temple Constructed from 1853-1893 | Mormon Tabernacle is home of The Mormon Tabernacle Choir | Assembly Hall | The Mormons walked to Utah pulling all their belongings on these carts.