S: Civil Rights Yearbook 1946-1981
FC: Civil Rights 1946-1981
1: 1946 | * White Primary is abolished in Georgia * William Hartsfield is the mayor of Atlanta
2: Starting in 1900, the Democratic party of Georgia ruled that only whites could vote in primary elections. They only followed the 15th Amendment during the general elections by which time the whites had already chosen candidates for the general election. This was abolished in 1946, when the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the white primaries were unconstitutional. | White Primary is Abolished in Georgia
3: William Hartsfield- Mayor of Atlanta from 1937-1941 and from 1942- 1961 | The white primaries were abolished and Hartsfield was successful at forming biracial groups to help him with voter registration. On August 30, 1961 he oversaw the peaceful integration of Atlanta's schools. He also hired African Americans to be police officers.
4: Integration of | White Army | 19 | Black Army | 1947 | In 1948, Truman issued order for armed
5: 48 | the Armed Forces | White and Black Army | 1949 | President Harry S. an executive integration of the forces.
6: 1954 | Brown vs. Board of Education | Topeka, Kansas
7: Linda Brown was refused enrollment at an all white public school and her father became the lead plaintiff in the court case of Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas. Thurgood Marshall was the NAACP's chief counsel for the plaintiffs. The U..S. Supreme Court ended up ruling in the plaintiffs favor by declaring state laws that established separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional..
8: 1955 *Emmit Till *Rosa Parks | Emmit Till and His Mother
9: Rosa Parks
10: The Murder of Emmit Till | Emmit Till was a 14 year old black boy from Chicago. While visiting his family in Mississippi, he was abducted and murdered, for supposedly whistling at a white woman. Two white men were acquitted by an all white jury for the murder. They later bragged about committing the murder. This murder was a major catalyst of the civil rights movement. | Before | After | His mother left his casket open so everyone could see what had happened to her boy.
11: Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott | Rosa Parks is recognized as the "mother of the modern day civil rights movement" in America. She refused to give up her seat on a city-owned bus to a white man. She was arrested and fined for this incident. This led to the formation of the Montgomery Improvement Association, led by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. This association boycotted the bus company for 382 days. The Supreme Court ended up striking down the city ordinance and outlawing racial segregation on public transportation.
12: Change to Georgia's Flag | 1956
13: The Georgia legislature approved the addition of the Confederate Battle Flag. They did this because they were unhappy with the federal government forcing integration of public schools | Before | After
14: Martin Luther King (President of SCLC from the foundation until his death in 1968) | 1957
15: The main reason the SCLC was founded was to advance civil rights in a non-violent way. Martin Luther King was the president of SCLC from founding until his death in 1968. The SCLC came mainly from the church. The church was a major part of black African American's lives. | (SCLC) Southern Christian Leadership Conference
16: 1960 | Sibley Commission | SNCC
17: *Sibley Commission *Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
18: Sibley Commission | The commission was formed in Georgia. Its objective was to gather public opinion about school desegregation. The governor of Georgia was faced with a decision of closing public schools or allowing them to be desegregated. The commission found that most Georgians- that were interviewed- would rather close the schools than integrate them.
19: (SNCC) Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee | The SNCC was founded at Shaw University. It is a civil rights organization, with local and regional groups, whose goal was political and economic equality for black people.
20: 1961 | *Freedom Rides | *Integration of The University of Georgia | *Albany Moement
22: Integration of UGA | Freedom Rides | Freedom riders rode interstate buses to highlight how black people were being treated unfairly through the blatant use of segregation. F | Hamilton Holmes and Charlayne Hunter-Gault were the first black students admitted into UGA. This resulted in the desegregation of UGA.
23: Albany Movement | SNCC workers came to Albany to register black voters and to encourage the desegregation of the city. Martin Luther KIng got involved and was arrested, along with many others, for protesting. Although it was a failure, Martin Luther King and SCLC learned lessons they could use in Birmingham, AL. | 1961
25: Mayor of Atlanta | Ivan Allen, Jr. was mayor of Atlanta from 1962-1970. He kept the city calm during integration. On his first day in office, he had all "white" and "colored" signs removed from city hall and he also integrated the cafeteria. He hired black fire fighters and allowed black police officers to arrest white people. Allen was a friend to MLK and the SCLC. He was the only southern elected official to testify in favor of desegregation in public areas during the hearings in congress that led to the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Prior to this act, he was able to get many Atlanta businesses to desegregate.
26: *Birmingham, Alabama Protests *March on Washington, DC *16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, AL bombed *John F. Kennedy Assassinated | 19
27: March on Washington, DC | Baptist Church Bombed | Birmingham, AL Protests | 63 | John F. Kennedy
28: Birmingham, AL Protests | Thousands of people went to the streets of Birmingham demanding desegregation in what was known as the most segregated city in the U.S. They were able to get some concessions toward desegregation in Birmingham and this also led to Kennedy saying he would introduce civil rights legislation. | This march of over 200,000 demonstrators was the largest Washington, DC had ever seen. It was a coalition of the six major civil rights movement organizations. They were looking for a number of things, including: civil rights legislation, desegregation of public schools, jobs, and prohibition of racial discrimination in hiring. It was at this event that MLK delivered his famous "I Have a Dream" speech. | March on Washington, DC
29: Although protests in Birmingham led to some desegregation, not everyone agreed with desegregation. A white man from the Ku Klux Klan bombed the African-American church resulting in the death of four black girls. | 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham Bombed | Before | After | While traveling in a presidential motorcade in Dallas, TX, JFK was assassinated. Although Lee Harvey Oswald was accused of the shooting, numerous conspiracy theories still exist on the possible people involved in the assassination. | JFK Assassinated
30: Civil Rights Act of 1964 | Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 outlawing many forms of discrimination against blacks and women. It outlawed racial segregation, unequal voter registration requirements, and racial segregation in school and workplaces and facilities that served the general public.
32: 19 | Voting Rights Act of 1965 | This legislation was an extension of the 15th Amendment. It prohibited states from forcing any requirements or prerequisites that could prohibit someone from voting based on race or color. Specifically, the legislation aimed to end the literacy test requirements imposed in southern states that prevented many blacks from voting.
33: 65 | Selma to Montgomery March | SNCC workers trying to register black voters in Montgomery asked for MLK and SCLC's help- they organized a march from Selma to Montgomery to bring attention to voting rights for blacks.
34: 1968 | MLK Assassinated | While visiting Memphis to lead a non-violent march in support of striking sanitation workers. MLK was assassinated in his hotel by James Early Ray. His funeral was held at Ebenezer Baptist Church in Atlanta and was nationally televised. From there, his body was carried 3 1/2 miles through the streets of Atlanta with more than 100,000 mourners marching along.
35: 1969 | Georgia State Board of Education Sued by Federal Government | The U.S. government sued the Georgia state board of education demanding that they not fund any public school that was refusing to integrate. The result was statewide integration by 1971.
36: 1973 | Mayor of Atlanta | Maynard Jackson was elected this year as the FIRST black mayor of a major southern city.
37: 1981 | Andrew Young was elected mayor of Atlanta in 1981. | This election was a symbol of the growing black political power in Georgia that Young helped to create. He was UN ambassador and he was co-chair of the Atlanta Olympic committee to help bring the Olympics to Atlanta