S: Madison Clark & Peyton Ledford
FC: Unit 10 Timeline | 1946-1981 | By: Peyton Ledford & Madison Clark
1: Georgia Studies Winkie Class D
2: 1946 | In the case of King v. Chapman, the U. S. Supreme Court, declares the white primary to be unconstitutional. By doing this, it paves a way to black voting rights.
3: 1946 | William Hartsfield was born in Atlanta, Georgia, was the mayor that served the longest in Atlanta's history. longest serving mayor in Atlanta history. He served as ATL's 49th mayor and also it's 51st Mayor. He known for making Atlanta into the aerodynamics powerhouse how it is today.
4: 1948 | President Truman's staff thinks about advising the President to form a committee to supervise the integration of the armed forces. President Truman signs an executive order. "It is hereby declared to be the policy of the President that there shall be equality of treatment and opportunity for all persons in the armed services without regard to race, color, religion, or national origin." The order also establishes the President's Committee on everything in armed forces to be now equal.
5: 1954 | Linda Brown, a seven year old, was turned down at a 'white school' and was told she had to go to a black school. Her father, Oliver Brown, decided to take the case to court. After being turned down at the state courts, they decided to take it to supreme court. Thurgood Marshall was the judge who pushed for the Browns to win, and they did. This was a turning point in history and a lot of people changed their minds about segregation.
6: 1955 | A 14 year old black teen, Emmett Till, whistled at a white woman in a grocery store. He didn't know the consequences of this until three days later, when two white men went into his house and dragged him out of his bed in the middle of the night, beat him atrociously and then also shot him in the head. The white men were arrested and charged with murder, they were both released quickly by an all white and male jury. Till's death was a spark that helped mobilize the civil rights movement.
7: 1955 | The Montgomery Bus Boycott was a political protest campaign. It was formed in 1955 in Alabama. It tried to oppose the city's rules of segregation on buses. Rosa Parks, an African American, was arrested for refusing to give up her seat to a white person.
8: 1956 | Atlanta attorney John Bell thought about a new state flag for Georgia that would have something to do with the Confederate Battle Flag. In 1956, it happened.
9: 1957 | The Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), founded in 1957, is an American civil rights organization. Martin Luther King was associated with the SCLC. The SCLC had a very big impact on the American Civil Rights Movement.
10: 1957 | The Little Rock Nine were a group of African-American students who were enrolled in Little Rock Central High School in 1957. After some blacks were hurt, and they even had to have troops at the school, the school finally became integrated.
11: 1958 | The Hebrew Benevolent Congregation Temple, a Reform Jewish temple located on Peachtree Street in Atlanta, Georgia, and known simply as "The Temple," was bombed 1958. An explosion of approximately fifty sticks of dynamite demolished the side walls of the building. The synagogue was one of Atlanta's oldest and wealthiest. No one was injured in the bombing.
12: 1960 | The Sibley Commission was a group of people that talked about how the public felt about integration and segregation.
13: 1960 | The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee was one of the principle organizations of the American Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s. SNCC played a major role in the freedom rides, a leading role in the March on Washington, Mississippi Freedom Summer, and the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party over the next few years. SNCC's major contribution was in its field work, organizing voter registration drives all over the South, especially in Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi.
14: 1961 | An interracial group of activists from attempted to ride Greyhound and Trailways buses from Washington, D.C. to New Orleans, Louisiana, to test the Interstate Commerce Commission's ban on segregated buses and facilities on interstate routes. The activists encountered extreme hostility and among other things, survived a bombing of their bus several beatings. This made more people want to get involved.
15: 1961 | On January 6, 1961, federal district court Judge W. A. Bootle ordered the immediate admission of Hamilton Holmes and Charlayne Hunter to the University of Georgia, ending 160 years of segregation at the school. Bootle's decision precipitated a constitutional crisis for state legislators, who passed legislation several years earlier mandating an immediate cut-off of state funds to any white institution that admitted a black student. As rumors circulated Athens and Atlanta regarding the possibility of the university's closing, college administrators urged students to remain calm and observe their usual routines. Order did prevail on campus until January 11, when an angry mob gathered outside Hunter's dormitory, causing significant property damage and garnering negative publicity for the university and the state. In the wake of the disturbance, state officials condemned the rioters and ultimately repealed the laws barring state support of integrated schools.
16: 1961 | The Albany Movement was when the NCAA decided to test the ruling of a Supreme Court, which was that segregation was prohibited on interstate buses and train stations. The NCAA sat in the "whites only" waiting room at the city's bus station. They were arrested right away. This made the African American community unite and form the Albany Movement.
17: 1962 | Ivan Allen served as mayor of Atlanta from 1962-1970. He was the mayor during the civil rights movement, and graduated from Georgia Tech. His first day in office, he took down all segregated signs and later worked side by side with Martin Luther King Jr. and the SCLC.
18: 1963 | Eugene "Bull" Connor was the City Commissioner of Birmingham during the Civil Rights Protests lead by Martin Luther King Jr. and L. Shuttlesworth. The nonviolent protester were attacked by the Federal government in many different was like dogs, hoses, and arrested many of the protesters.
19: 1963 | The march on Washington took place on August 28, 1963. Over 250,000 people attended at the nation's capital to support the movement of jobs and freedom. At Washington were the "Big Six", CORE, Martin Luther King Jr. (were him preformed the "I have a dream Speech") with the SCLC, John Lewis with the SNCC, and many more large contributers.
20: 1963 | 16th Street Birmingham was bombed on Sunday, September 15th, 1963. This bombing killed four inicent people, Addie Collins (14), Carole Robertson (14), Densie McNair (11), and Cynthia Wesley (14). This church was known for the meetings of the Cival Rights leaders. The first trial of the bomber George Wallace he was not found inocent, until 11 years later and was tried again and was found guilty.
21: 1963 | In Dallas, Texas on November 22nd, 1963 John f Kennedy, our president, was on his was to the Dealey Plaza. He arrived at 12:30 pm in their limo. A few minutes later shots were fired hitting JFK in the head and shoulder and John Connally in the back. Mrs.Kennedy then said to Clint Hill, secret service agent, "I have his brain in my hand". A few seconds later they were rushed to Parkland Memorial Hospital and JFK was then pronounced dead at 1:00 pm. John Collany lived with a few minor injuries. The man who shot JFK ran from the scene and a police officer later caught up with him to ask him questions. He pulled out his gun and shot the officer which later died. A shop owner saw him outside his store looking suspicious and running from the patrol cars. The store owner called the police and they later arrested the man named, Lee Harvey Oswald, and later transfered him to county prison .He went down to the basement headquarters and a man approached him and shot him in the stomach killing him. Because of this, Lyndon B. Johnson, JFK's vice president, now becomes president.
22: 1964 | The Civil Rights Act was first presented by JFK to the congress. Later, after JFK was assassinated the Bill had was argued about and the was voted on. The Bill won 73 to 27.
23: 1965 | Voting Rights Act of 1965 was federal legislation that enforced equal voting rights among all races.
24: 1965 | On March 25th, 1965 a march of thousands was led by Martin Luther King Jr. with NCLC and NLCC from Selma to Montgomery. They showed their views about what their rights should be and what America should become with equality.
25: 1966 | Summerhill Race Riot took place in Summerhill neighborhood in Atlanta, Georgia. Thousands of people marched through Summerhill protesting their views on rights for rights.
26: 1968 | Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated April 4th, 1968 on the balcony of the Larrine Motel in Memphis, Tennesse. He was there supporting a sanitation workers' strike. Around 6:05 pm MLK was assassinated by James Earl Ray. MLK later died one hour later at St. Joseph's Hospital. The shooting occurred during many nightly news casts and many show had to feed in the word. Because the news was fresh and many details weren't announced, a lot of the information was misunderstood and wrong. The public was shocked and had little idea of what happened. many riots from there on out happened in public areas from their
27: 1969 | The federal government sued GA because they still had segregated schools. They weren't going to fund them money until they band the segregation.
28: 1971 | In 1971 courts ruled in Georgia that all schools must be integrated to get money from the federal government. The Swan v. Charolette-Mecklenburg Board of Education, brought the problem to the supreme court.
29: 1973 | Maynard Jackson was elected first black to ever be elected mayor of any southern city. SHe ended up serving two consecutive terms as mayor. When she returned to office she had 79% of the popular vote.
30: 1981 | Andrew Jackson Young was born on March 12th, 1932 and became a activist from Georgia. He was elected mayor in 1981and was the 55th mayor of Georgia. He also was the 14th US ambassador of the United nations.
31: The End!