FC: Transportation and Communication
2: Railroads | Railroads in the USA were built on a much larger scale than in Continental Europe. They covered more distance and allowed for heavier locomotives and double-deck trains. | The first railroad line in the United States to evolve from a single line to a network was the Baltimore and Ohio in 1830.
3: There was a large growth in the US railroad system between 1850 and 1890. | The first elevated railway was built in New York in 1867. The first transcontinental railway was completed in 1869. | In 1830, the South Carolina Canal and Railroad Company was formed to draw trade from the interior of the state. The Best Friend of Charleston was the first steam locomotive to be built for sale in the United States.
4: Steamships | John Fitch built the first recorded steam-powered boat in the United states. | In 1793, Samuel Morey demonstrated his steamboat on the Connecticut River in Orford, New Hampshire. This was the first successful application of steam power to navigate a paddle wheel boat in North America.
5: Robert Fulton was the first to operate steamboats commercially. He built and tested an experimental steamboat on the River Seine in 1803. Fulton ordered a steam engine from Boulton and Watt. When he was on return, he built what he called the "North River Steamboat."
6: Telegraphs | In 1746, Jean-Antoine Nollet gathered several monks into a circle about a mile in circumference, with pieces of wire connecting them. He then discharged a battery of Leyden jars through the chain and observed that each man reacted approximately at the same time to this electric shock. He concluded that electricity's multiplication was very high.
7: In 1753 an anonymous writer in the "Scots Magazine" suggested an electrostatic telegraph. Using one wire for each letter of the alphabet, a message could be transmitted by connecting the wire terminals in turn to an electrostatic machine. This was the basis of early experiments in electrical telegraphy.
8: Canals | The Industrial Revolution created the need for large amounts of heavy products to be moved, and roads could not handle the weight nor were there vehicles made to transport such objects. For this reason, canals were created. | Canals were man-made rivers that were deep enough to handle the weight of industrial products.
9: Canals made it cheaper and easier to transport heavy, bulky or fragile goods. Around 1750, most businesses such as mines and potteries were considering building canals to carry their goods as it would be cheaper, not having to pay turnpike tolls.