FC: Brains are Cool! | By: Julia Isensee
1: There are several parts of the brain. There's the cerebrum, the cerebellum, the medulla oblongata, the spinal cord, and neurons. All of these parts of the brain have their own job to do, but there are some ways that these parts can become damaged and will stop doing their job. How all of this works though is extremely interesting, in my own opinion.
2: The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain and has both gray and white matter. It has a deep groove called a fissure that divides it into two halves called hemispheres. The one area of the cerebral cortex that controls muscles is called the motor area. The neurons on each side of the motor area cross over the brain and connect to the opposite side of the body. This means that if one side of it were to become damaged the opposite side of the body might become paralyzed. The cerebrum controls touch, eye sight, speech, hearing, taste, and smell. The awareness of all these sensations is called consciousness. So that all of these parts can function together many of the nerve cells connect to different parts of the cerebral cortex. In addition, many of the connections are made by a second layer of the cerebrum, called the cerebral medulla.
5: The cerebellum is the part of the brain that's located below and behind the cerebrum. It's divided into two hemispheres that both consist of both gray and white matter. The surface of it is folded, and its main function is to control balance and coordination. If the cerebellum were to become damaged for any reason, muscular movements will become jerky and unpredictable.
6: The medulla oblongata is the lowest part of the brain. It's attached to the spinal cord. It's made up of both gray and white matter. The white matter is on the outside of it and acts as a pathway for nerve messages from higher parts of the brain. The gray matter acts as a switchboard for sensory messages coming to the central nervous system. Also for outgoing motor messages on their way to a muscle or gland. Certain cells in the medulla's gray matter serve the body by controlling many of the vital functions that are necessary for life to continue. These include the breathing rate, heart beat, and digestion.
8: The spinal cord is a long bundle of nerves that are found within the vertebral column. Attached to it are thirty-one pairs of nerves carrying messages to and from the spinal cord. These reach out to all parts of the body and some nerves carry messages to the brain. Other nerves carry the messages to muscles and glands in the body. If the spinal cord were to become damaged a the person would become paralyzed below the point of injury.
11: Have you ever went in to the doctors office and had them tap your knee with a rubber hammer and had your knee jerk upwards? As the doctor strikes your leg a message is carried by a sensory neuron to the spinal cord. In the spinal cord an association neuron passes the message to the motor neuron.The motor neuron runs down the leg to the muscle. Thus when the muscle contracts, the lower leg is pulled upward. This is called a reflex and is involuntary.
12: There are three types of neurons. There's the association, the sensory, and the motor neurons. The sensory neurons carry messages from the sense organs like your skin, eyes, ears, nose, and tongue towards the brain and the spinal cord. The motor neurons carry messages from the brain and the spinal cord to either a muscle, which causes movement, or to a gland, which causes a secretion. The association neurons are found within the brain and the spinal cord. They serve to connect the sensory to the motor neurons. These three types of neurons form the wires of the body's communication system. They are what keep the brain informed about what's going on in the various parts of the body and of the environment around the body. They also carry messages originating in the brain to the various tissues and organs in the body.
14: This was my nervous system project. Hope that you enjoyed it!
15: The End!