FC: Erik ERIKSON | "Hope is both the earliest and the most indispensable virtue inherent in the state of being alive. If life is to be sustained hope must remain, even where confidence is wounded, trust impaired" Erik Erikson | Written by, Mollie Kennedy
1: This book i would like to thankfully dedicate to my fellow psychologist, Anna Freud. She helped me to gain greater knowledge about my passion for psychosocial development and i eventually earned an award for my work from the Vienna Psychosocial Society. Without Miss Freud and her support, none of this would of been possible. R.I.P Anna 3 December 1895 - 9 October 1982 -Erik Erikson | Dedication
2: Erikson's model of Psychosocial Development today is still very significantly regarded and meaningful concept. The word Psychosocial is the term Erikson came up with to incorporate Psychological (mind) and Social (relationships). Erik referred to his theory as 'epigenesis' and the 'epigenetic principle' which signified the concept's relevance to evolution and genetics. In Erikson's theory, 'epigenetic' does not refer to individual make-up and its influence on individual development. Just like Freud was, Erikson was largely concerned with how personaility and behaviour is influenced after birth and not before birth,and especially during childhood. during the "nature v nuture" debate, Erikson was firmly focused on nuture and experiences. -Mollie Kennedy 07/03/2011
3: Contents : | Chapter One- The Early Years Chapter Two- My Life as i Psychologist Chapter Three- Psychosocial Development Chapter Four- Where Am i Now? Chapter Five- Where is Psychosocial Development Now?
4: Chapter One- Early Years | Born in Frankfurt to Danish parents, Erik's lifelong interest in psychology of identity may be traced to his childhood. He was born June 15, 1902, as a result of his mother's extramarital affair, which resulted in the circumstances of his birth being concealed from him in his childhood. In 1911 after his mother re-married a Jewish man he was officially adopted by his stepfather. | The development of identity seems to have been one of Erikson's greatest concerns in his own life as well as in his theory. During his childhood and early adulthood he was know as Erik Homberger. He was a tall, blonde, blue-eyes boy who was raised in the Jewish religion. At temple school, the kids teased him for being Nordic; at grammar school, they teased him for being Jewish. | Erikson was a student and teacher of arts. While teaching at a private school in Vienna, he became acquainted with Anna Freud. Erikson underwent psychoanalysis, and the experience made him decide to become an analysts himself. He was trained in psychoanalysis at the Vienna Psychoanalysis Institute and also studied the Montessori Method of education, which focused on child development.
5: Chapter Two- My Life as a Psychologist | Erik spent time studying the culture of people in Northern California. He utilized the knowledge that he had gained by working with them culturally, environmentally and social. With this information he started to develop his Psychoanalytic theory. While Freud's theory had focused on the Psychosexual aspects on development, Erikson's addition to other influences helped to broaden and expand Psychoanalytic theory. He also contributed to our understanding of personality as it is developed and shaped over the course of the lifespan. | Erikson's greatest innovation was to postulate five stages of development like had been done with Freud's psychosexual stages, but eight and then later added a ninth stage in the book of "The Life Cycle Completed". Erik Erikson believed that every human goes through a certain number of stages to reach his or her full development. These stages are: Hope, Will, Purpose, Competence, Fidelity, Love, Caring and Wisdom.
6: Chapter Three- Psychosocial Devlopment | Erikson's stages of Psychosocial Development, explain eight stages through which a healthily developing human should pass from infancy to late adulthood. In each of the eight stages, the person confronts and masters new challenges. Each stage builds on the successful completion of earlier stages. | The eight stages are: Hope- Trust vs Mistrust (infants, 0 to 1 year) Will- Autonomy vs Shame (2 to 3 years) Purpose- Initiative vs Guilt (4 to 6 years) Competence- Industry vs Inferiority (7 to12 years) Fidelity- Identity vs Role Confusion (13 to 19 years) Love- Intimacy vs Isolation (20 to 40 years) Wisdom- Ego Integrity vs Despair (65 years +)
7: Chapter Four- Where Are You Now? | Unfortunately on May 12 1994, Erik Erikson passed away, aged 91. Psychosocial development is still used a lot amongst toddlers and young children to determine there behavioural patterns.
8: Resources Used: INTERNET http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erik_Erikson#Psychoanalytic_experience_and_training (04/03/11) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erik_Erikson#Erikson.27s_theory_of_personality (04/03/11) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erik_Erikson (09/03/11) http://psychology.about.com/od/psychosocialtheories/a/psychosocial.htm (09/03/11) http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/psychosocial+development (09/03/11)