S: David Thornton
BC: The Story of Haplogroup E Thanks for reading!
FC: Our Family History | The Origin Story of Haplogroup E
1: Haplogroup E's distinct mutations are M168, YAP, and M96. M168 is an ancestor to many genetic lineages, while the YAP mutation is a unique mutation in only two haplogroups. Mr. Mathers of the ISOGG explains, "The YAP mutation is the single most well-known and unique polymorphism that defines Haplogroups D and E." (Mathers, 2011). Haplogroup D is a mere counterpart to Haplogroup E based on the YAP mutation. There is also a Haplogroup E from mtDNA. The particular trait that defines Haplogroup E is M96. | M96 | YAP | Hap. E + Yap + M96 | Mutations and Counterparts
2: The origins of E have been debated for years. The data from the Genographic Project concluded this debate. | Africa or Asia?
3: Haplogroup E originated in Northeastern Africa. Many people thought that because Haplogroup E derived from the Haplogroup DE, which does not come from Africa, that it did not form in Africa. Spencer Wells stated, "The marker M96 appeared in northeast Africa 30,000 to 40,000 years ago." (Wells 2007).
5: Much of the E haplogroup populated all corners of the continent of Africa. The rest however, made their way into the Middle East. The exact time and how are still unclear, but Spencer Wells proposes that they traveled with, "a group of travelers called the Middle Eastern Clan...and later settled in the Middle East." (Wells, 2007). | How did they leave?
6: Generalization of Climate
7: Mousterian Pluvial | North African Climate 50,000 years ago | Mousterian Pluvial was an extended wet and rainy period in the climate history of North Africa and the Middle East. During the Mousterian Pluvial, the now-desert regions of northern Africa and the Middle Eastwere well-watered, contained lakes, swamps, and rivers that no longer exist. | Climate?
8: The living conditions were suitable due to the excessively wet and exotic scenery during the Mousterian Pluvial, but gradually became worse as the ice age moved south and temperatures began to drop, bringing an end to the Mousterian Pluvial. | How did they live?
9: What is now the Sahara desert supported typical African wildlife of grassland and woodland environments: herbivores from gazelle to giraffe to ostrich, predators from lion to jackal, even hippopotamus and crocodile, as well as extinct forms like the Pleistocene camel | What did they eat?
10: Descendants Today | Frequencies in Africa
11: Frequencies in Europe
12: The descendants of Haplogroup E can be found all across the globe, but the majority of them are found in all parts of Africa, parts of the Middle East, and Southern Europe | Haplogroup E | Africa Europe Middle East
13: Bibliography | -Ray, B. (2010, December 31). Y-dna haplogroup e and its subclades. Retrieved from http://www.isogg.org/tree/ISOGG_HapgrpE08.html -Wells, S. (2007). Deep ancestry: Inside the genographic project. (p. 208). -Jobling, M. (2007, July 27). Y-chromosomal diversity in the population of guinea-bissau: a multiethnic perspective. Retrieved from -Underhill, P. A. (2008, February 18). The phylogeography of y chromosome binary haplotypes and the origins of modern human populations. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1469-1809.2001.6510043.x/abstract;jsessionid=2274E3FB08C120CE8C0DAA72D17E737A.d02t02 -Semino, O. (2009, April 6). Origin, diffusion, and differentiation of y-chromosome haplogroups e and j: Inferences on the neolithization of europe and later migratory events in the mediterranean area. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1181965/?tool=pmcentrez | -Santolamazza, P. (2001, MAY 2). A back migration from asia to sub-saharan africa is supported by high-resolution analysis of human y-chromosome haplotypes. Retrieved from http://www.cell.com/AJHG/retrieve/pii/S0002929707625130 -Parker, M. (2004, March 24). Phylogeographic analysis of haplogroup e3b (e-m215) y chromosomes reveals multiple migratory events within and out of africa. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1181964/?tool=pmcentrez