S: Martin Luther vs. The Church, Pettus
BC: Luther and his followers have taken long step from wanting reform within the Catholic Church to becoming a separate religious group. They became known as the Lutherans.
FC: Martin Luther vs. The Church | By: Matthew Pettus
1: Luther's Near Death Experience | When Martin was 21 years old he almost got struck by lighting during a storm. He was scared he was going to die and so he prayed to Saint Anne saying he’d become a monk. Luther’s father wanted him to become a priest.
2: As a monk, Luther tried to have a peaceful mind. He confessed his sins at great length. He tried to overcome his sins but he still felt rejected by God.
3: 1512-1515 “The just shall live by faith.” Luther understood the phrase immediately. It meant that he shouldn’t pray and fast for salvation, but have a strong faith in God.
4: Johann Tetzel was raising money to rebuild Saint Peter’s Cathedral in Rome. He sent letters of indulgence. Letters of indulgence are pardons that released the buyer from time in Purgatory.
5: Tetzel lied about letters of indulgence because he was overeager to collect money. He gave the impression that they could buy their way into heaven. Strictly speaking, an indulgence could free a sinner only from the penance a priest had set.
6: Luther was deeply troubled by Tetzel’s tactics. Thus on October 31, 1517, Luther wrote 95 theses attacking the “pardon-merchants”. He posted his theses on the door of the castle church in Wittenberg and invited fellow scholars to debate him. Excited by Luther’s challenge, someone took them to a printer and within six months Luther’s name was known all over Germany he had started the Reformation. | 95 | 95
7: Luther’s teachings rested on three main ideas: 1.Salvation by faith alone 2.The Bible is the only authority for Christian life 3.The priesthood of all believers
8: On June 15, 1520, Pope Leo X issued an official statement threatening Luther with excommunication and unless he recanted. Instead of Luther taking back what he said, his students at Wittenberg gathered around a bonfire and cheered as he threw the official statement into the flames.
9: So the Pope seemed powerless to touch Luther. However the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, had a greater authority in Germany. We have seen how Charles summoned Luther to Worms in 1521 to stand trial. But Luther did not back down.
10: Luther made his famous speech on Thursday, April 18. The next day and Charles replied: “a single friar who goes counter to all Christianity per 1000 years must be wrong And you I will precede against him as a notorious heretic.” On May 26, Charles issued an imperial war order, The Edict of Worms. It declared Luther an outlaw and heretic. According to this edict, no one in the empire was to give Luther to food or shelter.
11: For almost a year after the Diet of Worms, Luther shut himself away in a castle owned by Prince Frederick the Wise of Saxony. While there, he translated the New Testament into German.
12: Luther returned to Wittenberg in 1522. He discovered that many of his ideas were already being put into practice; town priests had given up their colorful robes and they dressed in ordinary robes. They were now called ministers who he allowed to wed.