S: CHERJUAN ROBERTSON
FC: TOXIC WASTE
1: The Remedial Response Section oversees the investigation and cleanup of abandoned and uncontrolled hazardous waste sites and works with U.S. EPA to oversee the cleanup of Superfund (CERCLA) sites. This includes assessing and prioritizing sites, identifying parties responsible for cleanups, and overseeing the cleanup process. remedial response http://epa.ohio.gov/nwdo/remedial_response.aspx
2: 1 Photo via USGS, http://www.treehugger.com/corporate-responsibility | TOXIC WASTE RUN-OFF
3: THE MOUNTAIN TEMPLE, WAT ARAT | November 7th
4: Wetlands covered with crushed battery casings at the Matteo & Sons, Inc. site in New Jersey, which is one of the sites being added to the National Priorities List (NPL) | TOXIC WASTE LEFT-OVERS | http://www.epa.gov/superfund/accomp/news/npl_092706.htm
5: THE MOUNTAIN TEMPLE, WAT ARAT | November 7th
7: THE MOUNTAIN TEMPLE, WAT ARAT | November 8 | U.S. Superfund Sites. http://www.usnews.com/usnews/news/badguys/070430/top_10_toxic_waste_states.htm Superfund sites are toxic waste sites that have been recognized by the EPA as sites that have unhealthy levels of toxins or are illegally dump sites..
9: Wal-Mart Stores Inc., the world's largest retailer, will pay $27.6 million to settle a lawsuit alleging it improperly stored, handled and dumped hazardous waste at stores throughout California, state investigators said on Monday. Associated Press By Jonathan Stempel, Brad Dorfman, Reuter / May 4, 2010 http://www.csmonitor.com/From-the-news-wires/2010/0504/Wal-Mart-to-pay-nearly-28-million-in-California-toxic-waste-case The case is California v. Wal-Mart Stores Inc, Superior Court of California, San Diego County, No. 37-2010-00089145.
10: Brooklyn's Gowanus Canal
11: http://inhabitat.com/brooklyns-gowanus-canal-gets-superfund-status/ Photo: Alan Cordova via flickr. Photo: Jeffrey via flickr http://www.treehugger.com/corporate-responsibility/new-york-citys-gowanus-canal-declared-superfund-hazardous-waste-site.html http://www.flickr.com/photos/massdep/ | The Environmental Protection Agency has added Brooklyn's Gowanus Canal to the Superfund list of the United States' most contaminated hazardous waste sites.
12: ABANDONED TOXIC WASTELAND Photo Credit: Massachusetts Dept. of Environment Protection
13: ANOTHER BEAUTIFUL SUNSET OFF KRABI POINT | November 11
15: SWALLOW CAVES BY MAYA BAY | November 14 | U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Supplementary Materials: CERCLIS3/WasteLAN Database http://thebizjam.com/2011/02/04/united-states-hazardous-waste-sites/
17: Toxic wastes are poisonous byproducts of manufacturing, farming, city septic systems, construction, automotive garages, laboratories, hospitals, and other industries. The waste may be liquid, solid, or sludge and contain chemicals, heavy metals, radiation, dangerous pathogens, or other toxins. Even households generate toxic waste from items such as batteries, used computer equipment, and leftover paints or pesticides. The waste can harm humans, animals, and plants if they encounter these toxins buried in the ground, in stream runoff, in groundwater that supplies drinking water, or in floodwaters, as happened after Hurricane Katrina. Some toxins, such as mercury, persist in the environment and accumulate. Humans or animals often absorb them when they eat fish. The rules surrounding hazardous waste are overseen in the U.S. by the federal Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as well as state departments of environmental protection. EPA requires that toxic waste be handled with special precautions and be disposed of in designated facilities located throughout the United States, which charge for their services. Many towns have special collection days for household hazardous waste .A common hazardous waste facility is one that stores the waste in sealed containers in the ground. Less toxic waste that is unlikely to migrate, like soil with lead, is sometimes allowed to remain in place under the ground and then be sealed with a cap of hard clay.
18: Violations, like dumping hazardous waste in town dumps to avoid paying the fees charged by waste transporters and waste facilities, may result in large fines. The EPA began regulating hazardous waste in 1976. Many toxic waste dumps that pose a threat to communities today are holdovers from the era prior to 1976. Other waste sites are the result of more recent illegal dumping. The federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act regulates how hazardous waste must be handled and stored. It also lists some but not all of the wastes that EPA considers hazardous. Substances that are not on the list but are toxic are also considered hazardous waste and subject to EPA’s rules. The Superfund Act contains rules about cleaning up hazardous waste that was dumped illegally.Communities and environmentalists have long complained about lax enforcement of hazardous waste regulations, both by the federal government and state governments. Meanwhile, many corporations argue the regulations are too strict and lobby Congress to soften or remove certain rules. One EPA rule that has proved very controversial governs industrial sludge. EPA allows sludge containing heavy metals to be included in fertilizers that are used by farmers on food crops or sold directly to the public. Environmental and other organizations say dangerous levels of the metals are taken up by some plants and subsequently eaten by people, with particularly negative effects on children. nearly half of all Americans live within 10 miles of Superfund sites.
19: Twenty-seven years ago, after environmental disasters like Love Canal, the feds created a Superfund program to clean up America's toxic waste dumps. But today, that effort has run out of steam and stands underfunded and largely forgotten–despite the fact that nearly half of all Americans live within 10 miles of Superfund sites. This worrisome bit of news comes from "Wasting Away," the latest investigation out of the Washington, D.C.-based Center for Public Integrity. The center found that fewer than 20 percent of the dumps have been cleaned up enough to be removed from the Environmental Protection Agency's list of worst sites and that the agency recoups only a fraction of what it used to get from polluters to clean up the mess. The center's website includes a handy database of all 1,623 Superfund sites searchable by state and company, complete with maps, contaminants, and population figures. The theoretical perspective I will discuss is the conflict perspective. With toxic waste the conflict comes into play largely in the location of theses toxic waste sites. Most toxic dump sites and illegal sites are located in rural areas, close to water ways, and in over-populated urban areas. These areas face toxins being released into the atmosphere and contaminating ground water and soil. While the effort to clean-up superfund sites started with great enthusiasm, many companies use lobbyist to pad the pockets of elected officials and the regulations are lessened or ignored completely.
20: . A lot of major companies responsible for the toxic waste complain about the fees and regulations in disposing of such waste. These are the same company many Americans solicit on a daily bases. Landfill locations are also in close proximity to lower class housing. These residence are exposed to carcinogens, have higher cancer mortality, significant malformations, and birth defects. This is a form of alienation due to the locations of the sites. Affluent neighborhoods are situated the furthest from toxic waste sites. The proletariats are most likely to be exposed to toxic waste sites, while the bourgeoisie control the dumping of the waste and make a profit, by illegally dumping instead of following imposed regulations. The following link is of a great woman from the Bronx, New York. She speaks of a green initiative started in her community, due to the toxic waste and unnecessary spending done the power elite, instead of using it to generate productivity in the area. “Environmental justice [means that] no community should be saddled with more environmental burdens and less environmental benefits than any other.” Majora Carter http://www.ted.com/talks/majora_carter_s_tale_of_urban_renewal.html