BC: 2011-2012 Proctor
FC: American Indians | by, Samantha Burns
1: About the Author! | I have a Bichon Frise named Marshmellow. I am nine years old, and I enjoy playing the violin.
2: I want to dedicate this project to my teacher, Ms. Proctor, for without her this learning experience wouldn't be possible.
3: Virginia’s Three Main Language Groups There are three main language groups: Algonquian, Iroquoian, and Siouan. Their languages were not written. Each group spoke languages that were similar. Archaeologists made-up these names to refer to the similar groups. There are many language groups in North America. The Iroquoian lived in two different parts of Virginia. Algonquians lived mostly in the Coastal Plains region. Siouan lived in the Piedmont region.
4: Eastern Woodland Indians The Eastern Woodland Indians are good farmers, but they still hunt and gather food. They live in settled villages, and they also trade a lot. They would make beautiful pieces of pottery. Eastern Woodland Indians lived here 3,000 years ago. The geography of Virginia influenced how they lived. For example, if they lived in the Tidewater region, a lot of catching shellfish or fishing would be necessary.
5: Woodland Indians had certain traditions for the dead such as tying the bones in a bundle. The Woodland Indians also smoked and used tobacco for important reasons such as peace pipes. Innovations such as baskets and pottery made farming a lot more popular and easier for the Woodland Indians.
6: Algonquian The Algonquians settled in Northeastern America including Virginia. When it was warm, Algonquian children wore no clothing. They also lived in wigwams. A wigwam is a doomed roof dwelling.
7: Iroquois The Iroquoian used to play lacrosse which is still a popular sport and activity today. Additionally, Iroquoian children learned from their elders because there was no school.
8: Cherokee The Cherokee were skilled craftsmen who used natural objects to make jewelry and ornaments. They also believed in myths and legends such as the Milky Way was made of flour.
9: Powhatans The Powhatans farmed a type of corn celled Maize. Sometimes fences surrounded Powhatan villages.
10: Powwows are religious ceremonies that include dancing, music, and goods. The drums start first then the dancing. The tribe members dance in a ceremonial circle. They wear traditional clothes with bright colors. Visitors can purchase the goods at the booths. Some goods are: crafts, knives, jewelry, and animal skins.
11: Indians are not just people of the past; they are part of the present day and future. For example, The Mattaponi tribe helps Virginia’s Shad industry and economy. Did you know that there are over 4,000 tribal members in Virginia? There use to be eight recognized tribes and now there are eleven recognized tribes. Due to the Racial Integrity Act, records of tribes were inaccurate at first but have been corrected. In addition, who Indians are today is a lot clearer due to being given a choice in government. More tribes are finally being recognized.
12: The reservations in Virginia for Indians have become smaller over the years and there's only two tribal reservations left today in Virginia! One reservation farms and the other reservation fishes. The Mattaponi reservation used to cover the whole coastal plain but now is only 150 acres. Reservation land has been determined by the government.
13: 14,000-21,000 Indians made up the Powhatan Chiefdom at one time but not anymore.