1: I believe that the pursuit of truth is the same as the pursuit of knowledge. The truth is simply a piece of information which is correct. Attempting to further knowledge, propose new ideas, or make new and exciting discoveries are all forms of pursuing truth.
3: Aristotle was born in Stageira, a city in Macedon. At the age of 18, he moved to Athens to study under Plato, where he stayed for 20 years, until briefly moving to Asia Minor, and then finally returning to Macedon, where he was asked to be the tutor of Phillip the II's son, Alexander in 343 BCE. He later was appointed head of the Royal Academy, where he continued teaching Alexander, as well as Ptolemy and Cassander. In 335 BCE, he had returned to Athens to form his own Academy. It was over the next 15 years that he made the largest advancements in knowledge, and when his pursuit of truth expanded to include almost every subject in existance at the time. | Upon Alexander's death in 323 BCE, resentment toward Macedonians flared, and Aristotle fled the city once again, to his mother's estate. Where he died within a year, in 322 BCE.
4: Aristotle was the first to suggest a 5th element other than Empedocles' original four. (fire, water, earth and air). He called this new element "Aether," and described it as being the divine substance used to create the planets and stars and other such planetary bodies. This was a pursuit to figure out the truth of what made up all of these mysterious objects, of which the Greeks had very little factual knowledge.
5: The Physics is a 5-piece series of books written by Aristotle describing the basic nature of many different objects, living and non-living. (Physics coming from a Latin word meaning "Lectures on Nature," so not physics so much in today's sense as describing energy and such. The books were the foundation for all varieties of modern science, showing that what Aristotle said thousands of years ago still proves to be true.
6: In the 4th of his 5-piece series on physics, Aristotle defined motion as the actuality of a potentiality as such. Meaning that it is the shift between potential energy, and actual movement is what motion is. This is the foundation for the modern system of Potential vs. Kinetic energy, again proving that Aristotle's theories from millenia back are still true and functional today.
8: Aristotle's philosophy on human psychology was that human thought came from 3 seperate souls. The soul for Nutrition, growth, and reproduction, which both plants and animals have. | Then the soul for conciousness, movement, and perception, which all animals have, and finally, the soul of Rational thought, a soul only owned by humans. He was among the first to begin searching for the truth about where thought came from.
9: Aristotle is also credited with conceiving the earliest cameras. The camera obscura was a dark chamber with a small hole which allowed light to enter, project the image upside down on the opposite wall.
11: Aristotle is the first person to successfully try to classify all living things into different groupings, and his system of categorization continued to be used until the 19th century. His pursuit to find a useful way to group different living things together was revolutionary at the time. Organization is a truth that is necessary for anything to exist.