FC: Austin Johnson The Middle East
1: Table of Contents Mesopotamia p.2-3 Egypt p.4-5 Indus Valley p.6-7 China p.8-9
2: Mesopotamia | 1) Mesopotamia lies in between two rivers, the Tigris and the Euphrates. 2) Mesopotamia is located in what we know now as present day Iraq. 3) Mesopotamia has a very limited supply of natural resources. 4) The Mesopotamians had polytheistic views, meaning they believed in more than one god. 5) The Mesopotamians invented the wheel and the sail in order to make transportation easier.
3: 6) Sumer who lived in Mesopotamia created the 60 second unit which we use today to tell time. 7) The Mesopotamians used a written language that was called Cuneiform. 8) The Mesopotamians were people who believed in using slavery. 9) The Mesopotamians invented the plow to make farming a lot easier. 10) In Mesopotamia kings, Landholders, and some priests made up the social classes.
4: Egypt | 1) The Nile river runs through Egypt and provides fertile soil. 2) The Egyptians believe in more than one god. 3) Egypt experiences both a hot/dry climate. 4) In Egypt the Pharaoh's rule as kings and are seen as gods(this is called theocracy). 5) Egyptians could gain higher status through marriage or success in jobs. 6) THe resting place after death for kings was an immense structure called a pyramid. 7) Egypt was divided into upper and lower kingdoms until the two were united in 3000 B.C.
5: 8) The most important gods in Egypt were Re, the sun god, and Osiris, god of the dead. 9) Egyptians believed they would be, judged for their deeds whey they died. 10) The Egyptians believed to receive eternal life, the heart could be no heavier than a feather. If the heart tipped the scale, showing that it is heavy with sin, a fierce beast known as the Devourer of souls would pounce on the impure heart and gobble it up.
6: Indus River Valley | 1) A wall of the highest mountains in the world-the Hindu Kush, Karakorum, and the Himalayan ranges- separate India and other countries from the rest of the Asian continent. 2) The world's tallest mountains protect the Indus Valley from invasion. 3) India's climate is dominated by seasonal winds called monsoons. 4) Around 2500 B.C., people in the Indus valley were laying the brick's for India's first cities. 5) One of the most remarkable achievements of the Indus valley people was their sophisticated city planning.
7: 6) THe cities on the Indus valley was laid out on a precise grid system. 7) The Indus valley cities were constructed of overbaked bricks cut in standard sizes, unlike those of the Mesopotamians. 8) The Indus valley was the first group to develop a plumbing and sewage system. 9) The Indus valley civilization marked the beginning of the Hindu culture. 10) Around 1750 B.C., the quality of building in the Indus valley cities declined.
8: China | 1) Natural barriers somewhat isolated China from all other civilizations. 2) Two-thirds of China's landmass is dominated by mountain ranges and deserts. 3) China's first civilization developed in a river valley. 4) Only about 10% of China's land is suitable for farming. 5) Fossils show that ancestors of modern humans lived in southwest China about 1.7 million years ago. 6) In northern China near Beijing, a homo erectus skeleton was found. 7) The skeleton found in China is known as the peeking man, his remains show that people settled the river valley as much as 500,000 years ago.
9: 8) A ruling class of warrior-nobles headed by a king governed the Shang. 9) In China, the family was closely linked to religion. The Chinese believed that gthe spirits of family ancestors had the power to bring good fortune or disaster to living members of the family. 10) In the Chinese method of writing, each character generally stands for one syllable or unit of language.