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FC: The 13 Colonies By Allen Poon

2: The New England colonies first began when the Puritans first left England for Massachusetts. This happened when Charles I became king in 1625, King Charles I disapproved Puritans and their ideas. He canceled Puritan business charters and jailed a few Puritans. The Puritans left England for Massachusetts in 1629 because Puritan leaders believed that England had fallen on "evil and declining times". From 1629 to 1640, the Great Migration occurred and it involved 15,000 people moving from England to Massachusetts. | New England Colonies

3: There were many problems why people left the Massachusetts Bay colony, some problems were that people were questioning the Puritan leaders' way of governing. Many people challenged Puritan leaders, some of them were Thomas Hooker, Roger Williams, and Anne Hutchinson. Thomas Hooker believed that the government had too much power, later he led about 100 settlers out of Massachusetts Bay and into Connecticut. Roger Williams thought that the Puritan church had too much power, including no religious tolerance. In 1635, he was ordered to leave Massachusetts, so he settled in land sold from the Indians, which eventually became known as Rhode Island. Anne Hutchinson also fought for religious freedom. She was also kicked out of the colony and she and her family and some friends settled in Rhode Island. As more and more settlers settled in New England, more and more Native American lands were being taken over. 45,000 English settlers were already living in towns by 1670. Indians were becoming angry at whats happening to their land. Eventually the Indians and the English settlers began fighting over the land. | New England Colonies

4: Towns and villages were important in New England lifestyle because Puritans believed people should worship and tend to local matters as a community. The center of each village was an open field, and a meeting house. Every Sunday, all Puritans were required to attend Sabbaths. Meeting houses were used for things like town meetings, where citizens gathered and discussed and voted on issues happening. | New England Colonies | Middle Colonies | The colony of New Netherland became the New York when England and the Netherlands fought each other in 1664 because of their rivalry. When English warships entered New Amsterdam's harbor, Peter Stuyvesant surrendered without firing a shot. Colonists of the Netherlands hated Peter because of his harsh rule and refused to help. King Charles II of England gave New Netherland to his brother, the Duke of York. It was also renamed New York in the duke's honor. The Duke of York later decided that New York was too big to govern by himself, so he gives some of the land to friends, Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret. The two set up a proprietary colony named New Jersey in 1664.

5: Middle Colonies | Pennsylvania was founded by William Penn in 1681. Penn was a personal friend of King Charles II and was from a wealthy English family. He later joined a Protestant reformer group called the Quakers, which was also a despised religious group in England. Quakers were arrested, fined, or hanged for their ideas. William Penn later seeks help from the king to help Quakers leave England. Penn is then given a royal charter that makes him proprietor of a large tract of land in North America. The king names the land Pennsylvania, meaning Penn's woodlands. This was how Pennsylvania was founded. | A majority of the people made a living by farming because the conditions are more favorable in the Middle colonies than in New England. It had richer and more fertile river valleys and growing seasons were longer. Farmers raised and sold cash crops, which were basically wheat, barley, and rye. They also raised herds of cattle and pigs. Since they sold lots of food every year, they had bigger farms. Besides farmers, some people were artisans.

6: Southern Colonies | In 1632, Sir George Calvert persuaded King Charles I to grant him land for a colony in the Americas. He wanted to build a colony where Catholics could practice their religion freely after ruining his career in Protestant England by becoming a Roman Catholic. Calvert later dies before he could see his colony get underway. His son, Lord Baltimore, then takes over and finishes what his father started. In 1634, about 200 colonists arrived. As the colony began to grow, Lord Baltimore welcomed Protestants and Catholics to the colony. He later passed an Act of Toleration in 1649 to provide religious freedom to all Christians. | The Carolinas were founded when English colonists settled in a region south of Virginia and Maryland. In 1663, a group of eight English nobles received a land grant from King Charles II. The land grant consisted of two separate areas, one in the north, and the other in the south. Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe in 1732. He was a respected English soldier and energetic reformer. He made Georgia a place where debtors could make a fresh start.

7: Southern Colonies | The two ways of life developed in the Southern colonies were in the Tidewater Plantations and the Backcountry South. People in the Tidewater plantations found it to be most profitable to raise tobacco and rice on their large plantations. Around 20 to 100 African slaves did most of the work. People in Tidewater also used the river as an easy way to move goods to the market. Life in the Backcountry South was different compared to Tidewater. The land was covered by thick forests and rolling hills. It also had rich soil, which attracted settlers. The tobacco and garden crop fields were smaller. Farmers there were also largely self sufficient and sold surplus food at local markets. There were also fewer enslaved Africans working on the smaller farms. | In the 1700s,the slave trade growth increased. Southern colonies began relying on slave labor to work on their plantations. Over a period of less than 400 years, the slave trade grew, millions of Africans were enslaved. English sailors began referring to the passage of slave trading ships west across the Atlantic ocean as the Middle Passage. Many Africans died on the voyage. Over time, greater limits were put on the rights of slaves. Laws like slave codes were passed down to set rules for slaves' behavior and denied basic human rights.

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