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BC: I Dedicate this book to the people who helped shape what we know as the United States of America.

FC: The Beginnings of the Thirteen Colonies

1: The New England Colonies The New England Colonies consisted of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, and New Hampshire. This part of the colonies had many cities with many homes and buildings all very close together. This was because Puritans thought that people should tend to problems together as a community.

2: Puritans go to war with Natives The Puritans took more and more of the natives land. By 1670 fighting started to occur between one another from English settling on their land. | New England was settled by two different religious groups, the Pilgrims and the Puritans. More of the colonies were Puritans but some spoke out against the governing of the colony and left to settle their own colony for religious freedom. The two colonies settled for religious tolerance were Rhode Island and Connecticut. Rhode island was settled by Roger Williams and Connecticut by Thomas Hooker.

3: The Middle Colonies The Middle Colonies was New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware. Most families lived off of farming from the more suitable conditions in this part of the colonies. This part of the colonies was referred to as the Bread Basket of the colonies because of the amount of exports they had. Throughout the colonies few enslaved Africans worked on these farms. Most were workers who worked alongside the owner of the farm.

4: New Netherlands Becomes New York The only thing standing in the way of England connecting the Northern and Southern colonies was New Netherlands. | So the English came to New Amsterdam with warships and took over the colony without any fight from the Dutch. For their governor who swore to protect the people was highly unpopular with the people of the colony. King Charles II then renamed it New York and gave it to his brother the Duke of York.

5: New Jersey Separated from New York in 1664 because the colony was too large to govern easily. So he gave the land to Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret. The fertile soil in this area attracted all different people such as Irish, Germans, and Dutch. | New Jersey Separates from New York | Quakers come to Pennsylvania | In 1681 the colony of Pennsylvania was founded by William Penn. The Quakers wanted religious freedom which they did not receive in England. Everyone in Pennsylvania was different, different race, ethnicity, and religion. The settlers even formed friendly relation with the native Americans in the area.

6: The Southern Colonies Sir George Calvert was granted land from King Charles I so he could create a colony for Roman Catholics. | This Colony was named Maryland after the kings wife. Virginia was home to the first colonies and was known for their tobacco products which were grown on the swampy parts of the state. In Northern Carolina the settlers were poor tobacco farmers, while in Southern Carolina settlers were rich English people from Caribbean colonies. Soon plantations started to rise, which produced a large need for slaves. Soon, enslaved Africans highly populated the Southern area of the colonies.

7: Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe in 1732, he started Georgia so debtors had a place to go and start a new life debt free. In The Southern parts of the colonies there were two ways of life. You either were on a Tidewater Plantation or lived in The Backcountry South. In the Tidewater Plantations the owners had up to 100 slaves and grew rice, tobacco, or indigo. In the Backcountry people were seen more equally, and were very self sufficient. These people had barely any to no slaves working their few farms.

8: There were three different social classes within the colonies, Gentry were the wealthier land owners. The middle class who were the ordinary working class, and the indentured servants who worked close to ten years for freedom in the colonies. Throughout the colonies most children were schooled in one way or another. Wealthier children attended dame schools while middle class children either attended public tax run schools or became apprentices. | Colonial Government was the same in most colonies except Rhode Island and Connecticut. Every colony had a two parts to the government. Legislatures and a governor. Both sides created laws which would benefit the people within the colony.

9: England decided to regulate the colonies trade so they could only trade with England. This provided England with not only imports from the colonies but in the end the money they pay the colonies is going directly back to England. This also prevented English enemies, such as France, to not have the same amount of variety of products as England. | Spread of Ideas within the colonies Because the colonies had different environments than Europe. So people tried creating things which would make life within the colonies easier. This led to the inventions of odometers, bifocals, and even the lightbulb.

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