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BC: Social Psychology: Group Decision Making | By: Lauren Mosley, Caity Maloney, Jessica Fox, and Kristina Kondakji

FC: Social Psychology: | Group Decision Making

1: You have to have a leader in a group, but what characterizes one? Qualities of a good leader according to the Big Five, consist of high levels of dominance, emotional stability, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. Other research suggests that intelligence, a success- oriented mind-set, and flexibility also play a key role in defining a good leader.

2: Task- Oriented *Close supervision *Give directives *Discourage group discussions *May not be liked (even if not apparent) *Better in time restrictions and unsure results. (Burning elevator) | Person- Oriented *Loose supervision *Asks group members for ideas *Concerned with other group's feelings. *Usually more liked. (Management)

3: According to Alice Eagly, more men seem to be task-oriented leaders and women are more person-oriented. | Both are effective- depends on the situation and what field they are in. The difference in leadership is due to gender roles. Different "Roles"= bias against leadership, especially manifested in group.

4: Groupthink * Occurs when group members are unable to realistically evaluate the options available to them or to fully consider the potential negative consequences of a contemplated decision | Groupthink is particularly likely under 3 conditions: 1. The group is isolated from outside influences 2. The group is working under time pressure or other intense stressors 3. The leader is impartial When these 3 conditions exist, groups tend to become very close-minded and rationalize the group decision as the only reasonable one Contingency Theory The leader's ability to lead is contingent upon various situational factors, including the leader's preferred style, the capabilities and behaviors of followers and also various other situational factors.

5: 1986- NASA officials ignored an engineer's warnings about the effects of cold weather and decided to launch the space shuttle Challenger. The space shuttle exploded 73 seconds after liftoff. All aboard died. | 1993- Davis Koresh's cult in Waco, Texas decided to set their compound on fire after federal agents pumped in tear gas because the cult would not comply with the government. About 100 died.

6: Group Polarization When group discussions result in more extreme decisions than people would make if they were alone. Causes of Polarization: 1. Favoring the view of the majority 2. Members associate themselves with desirable decision

7: The Role of Norms Muzafer Sherif- charted the formation of a group norm by using a perceptual illusion called the autokinetic phenomenon Solomon Asch- examined how people would respond when they faced a norm that already existed but was obviously wrong What is a Norm? A norm is a learned, socially based rule that prescribes what people should or should not do in various situations.

8: Muzafer Sherif and the Realistic Conflict Theory: When there is limited resources, then this leads to conflict, prejudice and discrimination between groups who seek that common resource, and once hostility has been aroused, it is very difficult to return to normal relations and an ongoing feud can arise.

9: The Asch Experiment: Showed that peer pressure could have a measurable influence on the answers given.

10: Vocabulary Terms: Task-oriented leaders- leaders that provide close supervision, lead by giving directives, and generally discourage group discussion; may not appeal to group members Person-oriented leaders- leaders that provide loose supervision, ask for group members' ideas, and are generally concerned with subordinates' feelings; well liked by the group Groupthink- occurs when group members are unable to realistically evaluate the options available to them or to fully consider the potential negative consequences of a contemplated decision Group Polarization- occurs when group discussion results in more extreme decisions than people would make alone

11: The Big 5 Model of Personality: *Openness- artistic, curious, insightful, original, wide interests, unusual thought processes, intellectual interests *Conscientiousness- efficient, organized, planful, reliable, thorough, dependable, ethical, productive *Extraversion- active, assertive, energetic, outgoing, talkative, gesturally expressive, gregarious *Agreeableness- appreciative, forgiving, generous, kind, trusting, noncritical, warm, compassionate, considerate, straightforward *Neuroticism- anxious, self-pitying, tense, emotionally unstable, impulsive, vulnerable, touchy, worrying

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