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the history of computers

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FC: the history of computers

1: the history of computers

2: Steven Wozniak and Steven Jobs had been friends in high school. They had both been interested in electronics, and both had been perceived as outsiders. They kept in touch after graduation, | and both ended up dropping out of school and getting jobs working for companies in Silicon Valley. (Woz for Hewlett-Packard, Jobs for Atari) Wozniak had been dabbling in computer-design for some time when, in 1976, he designed what would become the Apple I. Jobs, who had an eye for the future, insisted that he and Wozniak try to sell the machine, and on April 1, 1976, Apple Computer was born. Hobbyists did not take the Apple I very seriously, and Apple did not begin to take off until 1977, when the | Apple

3: Hobbyists did not take the Apple I very seriously, and Apple did not begin to take off until 1977, when the Apple II debuted at a local computer trade show. The first personal computer to come in a plastic case and include color graphics, the Apple II was an impressive machine. Orders for Apple machines were multiplied by several times after its introduction. And with the introduction in early '78 of the Apple Disk II, the most inexpensive, easy to use floppy drive ever Apple sales further increased. | April 16, 1977, the Apple II was among the first successful personal computers; it launched the Apple company into a successful business. While primarily an 8-bit computer, by mid-run a 16-bit model was introduced.

4: The apple III the machine was first announced and released on May 19, 1980, but due to serious stability issues that required a design overhaul and a recall of existing machines, it was formally reintroduced the following autumn.[3] Development stopped and the Apple III was | discontinued on April 24, 1984, and the III Plus was dropped from the Apple product line in September 1985.[4] The Apple III could be viewed as an enhanced Apple II – then the newest heir to a line of 8-bit machines dating back to 1976. However, the Apple III was not part of the Apple II line, but rather a close cousin. With the increase in sales, however, came an increase in company size, and by 1980, when the Apple III was released, Apple had several thousand employees, and was beginning to sell computers abroad. Apple had taken on a number of more experienced mid-level managers

5: and, more importantly, several new investors, who opted to take seats on the board of directors. Older, more conservative men, the new directors made sure that Apple became a "real company," much to the dismay of many of its original employees. | Following the historic visit to Xerox PARC in 1979, Jobs and several other engineers began to develop the Lisa, which would redefine personal computing. Jobs, however, proved to be a poor project manager, and was taken off the Lisa by Mike Markkula, then president of Apple, and one of the major stockholders. Jobs, who owned only 11% of Apple, decided to take over someone else's project, and began working with the Macintosh--which had started as a $500 personal computer. Jobs made sure it was much more. | Apple Lisa Introduced:January 1983 Released:June 1983 Price:US $9,995 How many?100,000 in two years CPU:Motorola 68000, 5 MHz RAM:1 Meg

6: In 1975, Gates and Allen form a partnership called Microsoft. Like most start-ups, Microsoft begins small, but has a huge vision—a computer on every desktop and in every home. During the next years, Microsoft begins to change the ways we work. | Microsoft works on the first version of a new operating system. Interface Manager is the code name and is considered as the final name, but Windows prevails because it best describes the boxes or computing “windows” that are fundamental to the new system. Windows is announced in 1983, but it takes a while to develop. Skeptics call it “vaporware.” On November 20, 1985, two years after the initial announcement, Microsoft ships Windows 1.0. Now, rather than typing MSDOS commands, you just move a mouse to point and click your way through screens, or “windows.” Bill Gates says, “It is unique software designed for the serious PC user.” | On December 9, 1987 Microsoft releases Windows 2.0 with desktop icons and expanded memory. With improved graphics support, you can now overlap windows, control the screen layout, and use keyboard shortcuts to speed up your work. Some software | Window

7: developers write their first Windows–based programs for this release. Windows 2.0 is designed for the Intel 286 processor. When the Intel 386 processor. | When the Intel 386 processor is released, Windows/386 soon follows to take advantage of its extended memory capabilities. Subsequent Windows releases continue to improve the speed, reliability, and usability of the PC. | In 1980, IBM first approached Bill Gates of Microsoft, to discuss the state of home computers and what Microsoft products could do for IBM. Gates gave IBM a few ideas on what would make a great home computer, among them to have Basic written into the ROM chip. Microsoft had already produced several versions of Basic for different computer system beginning with the Altair, so Gates was more than happy to write a version for IBM.

8: Microsoft had no 8086 real operating system to sell, but quickly made a deal to license Seattle Computer Products' 86-DOS operating system, which had been written by Tim Paterson earlier in 1980 for use on that company's line of | 8086, S100 bus micros. 86-DOS (also called QDOS, for Quick and Dirty Operating System) had been written as more or less a 16-bit version of CP/M, since Digital Research was showing no hurry in introducing CP/M-86. Paterson's DOS 1.0 was approximately 4000 lines of assembler source. | 86-DOS February 1981 Paterson's Quick'n'Dirty DOS first runs on IBM's wirewrapped

9: PC prototype PC-DOS 1.0 August 1981 original IBM release PC-DOS 2.0 March 1983 for PC/XT, Unix-type subdirectory support, installable device drivers, I/O redirection, subdirectories, hard disk support, handle calls PC-DOS 3.0 August 1984 1.2 meg drive for PC/AT, some new system calls, new external programs, 16-bit FAT, specific support for IBM network MS-DOS 4.0 April 1986 multitasking (Europe only) - withdrawn from market after a very short run PC-DOS 3.3 April 1987 PC-DOS 4.0 August 1988 32mb disk limit officially broken, minor EMS support, more new function calls, enhanced network support for external commands. PCjr support dropped. MS-DOS 5.0 June 1991 high memory support, uses up to 8 hard disks, command line editor and aliasing, 2.88mb floppies, ROMable OEM kit available. MS-DOS 6.0 March 1993 disk compression (Doublespace), multiple configurations in CONFIG.SYS | April 1987 for PS/2 series, 1.44 meg support, multiple DOS partition support, code page switching, improved foreign language support, some new function calls, support for the AT's CMOS clock PC-DOS 4.0 August 1988 32mb disk limit officially broken, minor EMS support, more new function calls, enhanced network support for external commands. PCjr support dropped. MS-DOS 5.0 June 1991 high memory support, uses up to 8 hard disks, command line editor

10: and aliasing, 2.88mb floppies, ROMable OEM kit available. MS-DOS 6.0 March 1993 disk compression (Doublespace), multiple configurations in CONFIG.SYS

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