BC: Works Cited "James Monroe Quotes." Brainy Quote. BrainyMedia.com, 2010. Web. 27 Apr 2010.
FC: I.N.S.P.E.C.T: Westward Expansion | by Kasia Koller
2: The first census was held in 1790. | The population count was almost four million | 30 years later, the population count was about ten million.
3: Westward Expansion With a quickly increasing population, available land in the West started to attract more people. Americans started moving west of the Appalachian Mountains.
4: American citizens believed that they were meant to spread freedom and democracy throughout the continent. This was called Manifest Destiny. | Americans wanted to extend their country to the Pacific Ocean. Settlers and their families started moving west.
5: The Industrial Revolution | Hard work was a large part of American life. People worked hard at home and on farms. This changed when machines were invented in Great Britain. Instead of using hand tools, machines could be used to make cloth. The Industrial Revolution started in New England, where it was hard to farm. Factory jobs provided opportunities to make money without farming. Mills were built along New England's many rivers. The growth of factories spurred population growth in cities. Many factory workers were young immigrants who had no other way of making money.
6: Natural and Geographic
7: With the invention of barges and steamboats, river travel became more significant. It was more comfortable for travelers. The country's existing rivers did not make it easy to travel from east to west. A plan was made to build the Erie Canal. It would connect the Hudson River with Lake Erie, one of the Great Lakes. Many immigrants worked on the canal, which would be 363 miles long. It took two years to build, and was the first of many canals in the country.
8: Inland roads were needed to ship goods and to travel on. | Some companies built turnpikes and charged money to travel on them. The fees paid for the construction of new turnpikes.
9: Oregon Country had fertile land for farming. This made it seem especially attractive to people in the East who were having trouble earning money. People started moving to Oregon in waves. They rode for 2,000 miles in covered wagons called prairie schooners, which held all their belongings. It was a long, treacherous journey across rough terrain. Most would leave for Oregon in the spring, so they wouldn't get stranded in the mountains during the winter.
10: The Americans wanted to have the border at the 54-40 latitude line. They compromised and the border was put at the 49th parallel. | Oregon was filling up quickly with American settlers. The Americans wanted to fulfill the Manifest Destiny, but there were still many British settlers in the area.
12: Marcus and Narcissa Whitman, some of Oregon's first settlers, built a mission in Oregon. They tried to convert the American Indians to Christianity. | The settlers brought measles, which killed many Indians. Some American Indians attacked and killed some of the missionaries. | Whitman Mission
13: The Southeast had fertile land for farming. There were American Indian tribes already living in the area. The settlers wanted this rich land for themselves. | The Indian Removal Act was passed in 1830. This act allowed the federal government to pay the American Indians to move west, where the land was dry and not good for farming. There was a place for the Indians to live set up in modern-day Oklahoma, called Indian Territory.
14: The Cherokee tribe had their own nation, and refused to give it up. President Andrew Jackson wanted the land for settlers, though. A few Cherokee agreed to move, but the majority refused. | Troops eventually came to force the Cherokee to move. The Cherokee marched for miles while carrying all their belongings. 4,000 died of cold, starvation, and sickness. This route became known as the Trail of Tears. | The American Indians living in Indian Territory were eventually let to live in peace. They set up governments, farms, schools, and law enforcement.
16: James Monroe was president during the Era of Good Feelings. During this time period there was not a lot of political division. The whole nation seemed to be getting along politically. | James Monroe was the first president to tour the country since Washington. | At no period of our political existence had we so much cause to felicitate ourselves at the prosperous and happy condition of our country. -James Monroe
17: The Era of Good Feelings soon ended, and Americans started feeling loyal to their regions. Different regions had very different beliefs. This is called sectionalism. | John C. Calhoun, from the South, believed that state governments should have more power than the federal government. | Daniel Webster represented New England and worked to protect American industries. He supported national unity. | Henry Clay represented the West and was known for trying to compromise and resolve sectional differences.
18: President Andrew Jackson had been born to a poor family in a log cabin. Middle and lower class citizens like Jackson because he inspired them. He was an American success story. | During Andrew Jackson's presidency there were lots of new voters. Jackson's success story inspired ordinary citizens to take part in politics. This brought about the creation of the Nominating Convention system.
20: The country had an economic depression in 1837. Employment was low, land value decreased and, banks failed. Farmers lost their land and workers lost their jobs. | President Martin Van Buren convinced Congress to create a federal treasury, so private banks wouldn't use government money to back banknotes. This would help to guard against bank failures, but the plan was greatly criticized.
21: In 1848, a worker found gold in a ditch. Word got out, and people flocked to California, hoping to strike it rich. Immigrants and U.S. citizens rushed to California. | The California Gold Rush
22: The Gold Rush created a large population in California. It also greatly helped the growth of the California economy, because industries expanded to fit the needs of the miners. | Merchants made lots of money because they could sell in remote mining towns, where there was no other place to buy necessities. | The Gold Rush created a large population in California. It greatly helped the growth of the California economy, because industries were brought to California for miners.
24: People were rushing to California quickly, and towns grew fast. Boomtowns were created nearly overnight, with people arriving every day. | There was no government or law enforcement in mining camps, so crime was common. Men decided to take care of things by forming vigilante committees. These committees were all the law enforcement mining camps had.
25: Levi Strauss was a Jewish immigrant who went to California. He struck it rich not in gold, but in denim. He sold blue jeans to miners, who liked them because they were sturdy and good for working.
26: A man named Joseph Smith dreamed of creating a perfect society. He used this idea to start a new Christian church, called the Mormon Church. He started his religion in New York, but neighbors didn't approve, so the church moved west. | The Mormons eventually moved to an area in present-day Utah. They called this place Deseret. They created their own functioning society in Deseret. | The early Mormon church supported the idea that everyone should share property. It also supported polygamy, in which a man has more than one spouse.
27: Technological and Scientific
28: Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin in 1793. It removed seeds from cotton fiber much more quickly than human workers could. | Eli Whitney also started using interchangeable parts. These were identical machine parts that were put together to create a machine. Interchangeable parts made it easier to make and repair machines. This opened the door for mass production and lower prices.
29: Many cloth-making machines were being invented, like the power loom and spinning jenny. These machines saved lots of time in making cloth that was formerly spun or woven by hand. | An inventor could get a patent for legal rights to an invention. A patent legally protected the inventor's right to his/her invention, so no one could steal the idea or profits.
30: Cause and Effect: Who did not support change? President Andrew Jackson and Georgia's state government both wanted the American Indians to relocate to the West so the settlers could move on to their rich land. The Cherokee did not believe in this idea. They wanted to stay on their homeland. Turning Points: How did decisions or actions significantly transform people's lives? The California Gold Rush changed the lives of many. People uprooted themselves and moved to California. They lived in remote mining camps, far away from other people. The Gold Rush altered the course of many lives. The lives of the Cherokee were changed when General Winfield Scott ordered them off of their land. | Cause and Effect: Who did not support change? President Andrew Jackson and Georgia's state government both wanted the American Indians to relocate to the West so the settlers could move on to their rich land. The Cherokee did not believe in this idea. They wanted to stay on their homeland. Turning Points: How did decisions or actions significantly transform people's lives? The California Gold Rush changed the lives of many. People uprooted themselves and moved to California. They lived in remote mining camps, far away from other people. The Gold Rush altered the course of many lives. The lives of the Cherokee were changed when General Winfield Scott ordered them off of their land. Through Their Eyes: What values, skills, and forms of knowledge did people need to succeed? Settlers moving west had a sense of adventure. Almost everyone believed in freedom and wanted to spread it throughout the whole continent. Work was hard, especially on the frontier. Settlers had to have determination and willpower to make the long journey out west, and needed to persevere in the toughest situations. Travelers had to be brave, because they didn't know what they could face on the frontier. A knowledge of the wilderness was good, and pioneers needed to know how to set up a home in the remote west. To do this, one would need to be able to build and do physical labor. | Change and Continuity: Who has benefited from change? Why? American settlers got the most benefits from western expansion. They got fertile farmland and chances to invent and start businesses, especially in the West. The Mormons gained the religious freedom they were looking for. The government also benefited, because they expanded their borders to include Oregon and California. New citizens came to vote and pay taxes, and industries were expanded to include the western region.
31: Using the Past: How is the past different from the present? People traveling during this time period had many things to worry about, like Indian attacks and unknown territory, that we don't need to worry about now when traveling west. It is also much easier to travel across the continent! Back then, most of the territory was unknown. We have maps for every area. Nowadays, American Indians are respected and have a good relationship with the government. American Indians would probably not be forced off their land today. Workers also have more rights. There are not children working in factories in the U.S., and workers do not have to work so many hours for such little pay. | Through Their Eyes: What values, skills, and forms of knowledge did people need to succeed? Settlers moving west had a sense of adventure. Almost everyone believed in freedom and wanted to spread it throughout the whole continent. Work was hard, especially on the frontier. Settlers had to have determination and willpower to make the long journey out west, and needed to persevere in the toughest situations. Travelers had to be brave, because they didn't know what they could face on the frontier. A knowledge of the wilderness was good, and pioneers needed to know how to set up a home in the remote west. To do this, one would need to be able to build and do physical labor.