S: Father Of Behaviourism John B Watson
BC: Medea is a woman of extreme behaviour and extreme emotion. For her passionate love for Jason she sacrificed all, committing unspeakable acts on his behalf. But his betrayal of her had transformed passion into rage. Her violent and intemperate heart, formerly devoted to Jason, now is set on his destruction. Medea shows what the consequences may be when an individual’s emotions are extreme and unchecked. Medea is an example of passion carried too far, in a woman perversely set on choosing rage over mercy and reason. | John Watson would attack this case study in the view of a Behaviourist by first assessing why Medea is committing these horrible crimes. He would assume from the Behaviourist point of view that Medea has committed these crimes through the environmental factors of rewards and punishments. He would conclude that the reason behind Medea committing her unspeakable acts on behalf of Jason at the start would be because of the reward of being with Jason as his wife at the end of it. Medea would also have done this because the punishments of having to stay in her hometown without Jason were too much. He would also conclude that the reason behind the murders Medea committed would be because of the punishments of being thrown into exile with her children were too great and also because of the rewards of bringing revenge against Jason was great. John Watson would start by giving Medea Rewards for good behaviour and punishments for bad behaviour in order to have complete control over Medea’s life, and show that just by taking out all the factors and putting in what he wants her to do and know, he can change her behaviour and turn her good. Written by the man that knows John best Gordon Moore.
FC: FATHER OF BEHAVIOURISM JOHN B WATSON
1: To my Mentor and Teacher Gordon Moore, to whom without I would not have found my love for psychology, and also to the combined efforts of Dewey, Angell, Donaldson and Jacques Loed whom without I would not have developed my highly descriptive, objective approach to the analysis of behaviour that lead me to producing my own theory of Behaviourism | J.B.WATSON. | Dedication :
3: 1. DEDICATION 2. FOREWARD 3. LIFESTORY 4. THE LITTLE ALBERT EXPERIMENT 5. EXPERIMENTS AND THEORIES 5. BEHAVIOURISM 6. BIBLIOGRAPHY 7. EPILOGUE | CONTENTS: | PAGE 1 PAGE 4-5 PAGE 6-7 PAGE 8 PAGE 9 PAGE 10 PAGE 11 PAGE 12
4: Intelligent, Psychologist, Experimenter, Behaviourist and Bad Husband, these are just a few of the words I could use to describe John Watson. We all knew Watson was going to grow up and do something big, after we saw him, a precocious student, enter college at the age of 16, and leave with a master’s degree at 21, with the thought in his mind that he was a terrible student. I can’t say I actually saw the great man at work, but after reading his books and listening to what other people say about him, I can safely predict that John Watson was a man on a mission, a man determined to leave a mark of the world of psychology. Watson had his first thought of behaviourism, during his stage of animal experimentation obsession. Through his experimentation on white rats and his development of the first ever rat maze, Watson discovered that he could teach the rat to get through the maze, with the environmental factors of rewards and punishments. Watson felt that if he could experiment on rats, in an objective way there is no reason why he could not experiment on humans in the same way. With this attitude, Watson put the emphasis on external behaviour of people and their reactions on given situations, rather than the internal and mental state of people. I have always thought this to be a weird view of psychology but as I soon learnt, Watson believed greatly in this view of psychology and went on to do lectures and even write books on his new theory ‘Behaviourism.’ What I have noted through my path of life is that John was his own man. He didn’t like to follow the theories of anyone else, he believed that William Wundt’s theory of studying consciousness was inaccurate as the human mind was a personal thing, he did not particularly follow the direct views of William James ; Functualism, but he came up with his own theories and experiments, and that was the great thing about him. | Foreward:
5: Watson proposed that psychology should focus on the scientific study of observable behaviour that could be objectively measured and confirmed by other researchers and how everything a person does is influenced by rewards and punishments in everyday life. Watson took his theory to the lab with his quite possibly most famous experiment, ‘Little Albert.’ I am upset that I could not have been there when the experiment was taking place, but from what I have heard it was a mind blowing thing, that took behaviourism further than anyone, especially Watson could ever have imagined. Watson attempted to condition a severe emotional response in Little Albert, a nine-month-old child. Watson determined that white, furry objects, such as a rat, a rabbit, and cotton, did not produce any negative reaction in the baby. But by pairing together a neutral stimulus (white, furry animals and objects) with an unconditioned stimulus (a very loud noise) that produced an unconditioned response (fear), Watson was able to create a new stimulus-response link: When Albert saw white, furry objects; this conditioned stimulus produced a conditioned response of fear. This study provided evidence that even complex behaviors, such as emotions, could be learned through manipulation of one's environment, thus bringing the theory of Behaviourism even further. From this experiment Watson was able to produce the saying he so desperately believed in “Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select – doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief and, yes, even beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors.” Watson was an incredible Psychologist, and I have been blessed to have spent some of my life in the presence of him, even teaching him in college. Watson’s theory of behaviourism become widely known and followed through the rest of his life and afterwards until about the 1950’s when behaviourism came together with the study of mental processes. | G.MOORE Gordan Moore
6: Full Name – John Broadus Watson Birth – (January 9, 1878) Death – (September 25, 1958) School backgrounds – Watson attended Furman University in Greenville, South Carolina. A precocious student, he entered college at the age of 16 and left with a masters degree aged 21. He spent a year as a principal for grade school, then entered the University of Chicago to study philosophy with John Dewey on the recommendation of Furman professor, Gordon Moore
7: In 1878 John Broadus Watson was born to Emma and Pickens Watson. A poor family in Greenville, South Carolina, his mother was very religious. John's father, with whom he was closer, did not follow the same rules of living as his mother. He drank, had extra-marital affairs, and left in 1891. Eventually John married Mary Ikes whom he met at the University of Chicago. Together they had two children, Mary and John. And, like his father, had affairs with a number of women. John and Mary finally divorced and he married one of his graduate students, Rosalie Rayner.
8: In 1920 Watson and an assistant, Rosalie Rayner, published one of the most famous research studies of the past century. Watson attempted to condition a severe emotional response in Little Albert, a nine-month-old child. Watson determined that white, furry objects, such as a rat, a rabbit, and cotton, did not produce any negative reaction in the baby. But by pairing together a neutral stimulus (white, furry animals and objects) with an unconditioned stimulus (a very loud noise) that produced an unconditioned response (fear), Watson was able to create a new stimulus-response link: When Albert saw white, furry objects, this conditioned stimulus produced a conditioned response of fear. This study provided evidence that even complex behaviors, such as emotions, could be learned through manipulation of one's environment. | THE LITTLE ALBERT EXPERIMENT
9: Experiments – The Little Albert experiment Experiments with animals in controlled laboratory conditions. Studied Infants Theories – Animals and humans are influenced by rewards and punishments and in turn this could affect future repetitive behaviours. | The experiments were scientific because they were valid, but not reliable. They produced Empircal Evidence, but were not conducted Replication of the experiment. There were Extraneous Variables; things that he could not control. John Watson generalized his experiments to the whole population from one experiment.
10: Area of Perspective – Behavioural Perspective - John Watson believed that Psychology should be on the emphasis and importance of studying environmental influences on observable behaviour. More specifically the behavioural perspective focuses on how behaviour is acquired or modified by environmental consequences such as rewards and punishments. Watson's assumption was that all behaviour can be explained in terms of leaning processes. | Criticisms – Many critics argue that behaviourism is a one dimensional approach to behaviour and that behavioural theories do not account for free will and internal influences such as moods, thoughts and feelings. Behaviourism does not account for other types of learning, especially learning that occurs without the use of reinforcements and punishments. People and animals are able to adapt their behaviour when new information is introduced, even is a previous behaviour pattern had been established through reinforcements. Strenghts – Observable behaviour Effective Therapeutic Techniques Still the same perspective | BEHAVIOURISM
12: (Online) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_B._Watson ( 01, 03 March 2011) (Online) http://psychology.about.com/od/profilesofmajorthinkers/p/watson.htm (accessed 01, 06 10 March 2011) Cooper, S. (2009) John B. Watson (1878 to 1958) Behaviorism (online) http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/behaviorism/Watson.html (accessed 03, 06, 10 March 2011) Atherton J S (2011) Learning and Teaching; Behaviourism [On-line: UK] (accessed 01, 06 10 March 2011) from http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/behaviour.htm Cohen, David. J.B. Watson: The Founder of Behaviourism (online)http://www.sonoma.edu/users/d/daniels/watson.html (accessed 03, 10 March 2001) | BIBLIOGRAPHY:
13: Watson set the stage for behaviorism, which soon rose to dominate psychology. While behaviorism began to lose its hold after 1950, many of the concepts and principles are still widely used today. Conditioning and behavior modification are still widely used in therapy and behavioral training to help clients change problematic behaviors and develop new skills. | In 1957 the APA awarded John Watson its highest order, the gold medal for distinguished lifetime contribution to psychology. During the latter part of his life, John Watson's already poor relationships with his children grew progressively worse. He spent his last years living a reclusive life on a farm in Connecticut. Shortly before his death, he burned many of his unpublished personal papers and letters. Watson died in 1958 of chirrosiss of the liver from drinking. | EPILOGUE: