BC: Important People of the Reformation
FC: The Reformation | By: Meagan Holmes
1: Divided States Constant Revolts by Protestants Gains by not Being Tied to the Papacy Writers like Erasmus, who wrote on reform, were gaining popularity. | Religious | Causes of Protestant Reformation | Political | Old Movements started by John Wycliffe and Jan Hus were not disappearing and still had followers. The Practice of Sacraments that were not Mentioned in the Bible The Pope's Outright Unholiness The Sale of Indulgences
2: Lutheranism | Martin Luther unintentionally started this movement when he asked for reform. Luther attacked indulgences and believed that salvation was justified by faith alone. Lutheranism became recognized as an offical religion in the Holy Roman Empire in the Peace of Augsburg.
3: German peasants revolted under the movement, but Luther condemned it. Luther believed in social structure.
4: Calvinism | John Calvin started this movement. In the second half of the 16th century, Calvinism replaced Lutheranism as the dominant Protestant force in Europe. Calvinist followers believed in faith by predestination which meant that salvation or damnation was already decided.
5: John Calvin set up a Calvinist Geneva where society was transformed spiritually and morally. After 1555, Calvin's Geneva became home to thousands of Protestants. Geneva became a "woman's paradise" because beating of wives was serverely punished.
6: How and Where | England | Switzerland | Italy
7: Protestantism Spread | Germany | France | Spain
8: Enlgand | Protestantism spread to England with William Tyndale and King Henry VIII. William Tyndale printed an unauthorized English translation of the Bible which could not be destroyed because of the number of copies. King Henry cut his ties with the Catholic Church mainly because he wanted to secure an annulment from Catherine of Aragon and marry Anne Boleyn. Thomas More did not condone this marriage, and it got him executed. Under Queen Elizabeth I, England becamse truly Protestant.
9: Switzerland | Prtotestantism spread to Switzerland with Ulrich Zwingli and John Calvin. Zwingli believed that whatever lacked literal support in Scripture was not to be believed. He led the Swiss Reformation. John Calvin brought a Calvinist community to Geneva, Switzerland, which became entirely Calvinist.
10: France | French Protestants, or Huguenots, brought Protestantism to France. Overwhelmingly, Huguenots began to participate in an uprise in France, and were eventually granted rights. In addition, many ambitious French aristocrats joined the Calvinist church in opposing the Guise family. Calvinist rulers took this opportunity to bring Calvinism into France.
11: Germany | Protestantism spread to Germany with the help of Martin Luther and the Peasants' Revolt. When Martin Luther posted his 95 theses, he later gained many followers. Many of his followers were peasants who revolted. Protestantism spread on from Germany with German protestant rulers who made religious reforms in their terrirories.
12: Italy | Protestantism spread to Italy through a small number of Anabaptists who left their homes to find freedom of worhsip. Protestantism was a minority in Italy because of the papcy being within its borders.
13: Spain | Protestantism spread to Spain during the revolt in the Netherlands. Philip II of Spain tried to impose his will within the Netherlands,the revolt that occurred brought the undoing of Spain's empire and also a Protestant minority.
14: Radical Reformation | Anabaptists | Anabaptists are the 16th centry ancestors of Mennonites and Amish. They rejected infant baptism because they believed that only consenting adults could enter their faith. Anabaptists were persecuted because of rebaptism and because they would not recant their beliefs.
15: Anti-Trinitarians | Anti-Trinitarians were persecuted radical protestants who disagreed with the church doctrine of the Holy Trinity. Anti-Trinitarians were the strongest opponents of Calvinism, especially in its belief of original sin and predestination.
16: Consequences of the Reformation | Political | Protestant states emerged. England was ruled by Elizabeth I. Rulers would decide religion of the land and people who didn't like the religion were free to leave for another country.
17: Religious | Social | Protestants were granted several rights of worship during the reformation. The burning of heretics gave entertainment to the society. | New religions were given tolerance. Reforms were made in the Church.
18: Catholic Reformation | Jesusits | Many internal criticisms of the church led to the Counter-Reformation during Protestant success. New Catholic orders sprung up because of this. | The Jesusits are an order that taught the creation of a new religious self and submission to a higher religious authority. | Ursulines are an influential order for women. It established convents in Italy and France for religious education of girls from all social classes. | Ursulines
19: Council of Trent | Capuchins | Theatines | Theatines are an order that groomed devout and reform-minded leaders at the higher levels of the church heirarchy. | Capuchins sought to return to the original ideals of Saint Francis and became popular among the laity. | The Council of Trent assembled from 1545 to 1563 strictly under the church control. The council reformed internal church discipline and granted few concessions to the Protestants.
20: Religious Wars | French Wars of Religion | These wars were between French Catholics (mainly the Guise Family) and the Huguenots. Catherine de Medicis was the Queen Regent and was VERY Catholic, and the people were largely Huguenots. Henry IV became King and granted religious freedoms to Huguenots in the Edict of Nantes | England and Spain | The (Catholic) English Queen, Mary I was married to Philip II of (Catholic) Spain. Later, (Protestant) Elizabeth I is Queen and does not condone Spain's ruling of England. The relationship between Enlgand and Spain then deteriorates. Spain fought with their Armada, and England beat them.
21: Thirty Years' War | The Thirty Years' War occurred in the Holy Roman Empire. The war broke out in Bohemia. An upopular king was revolted against by Protestants became an all-out international war when Spain stepped in and sent troops. The Lutheran king Christian IV of Denmark picked up the Protestant resistance and brought his armies into Germany where he was outright defeated. Gustavus Adolphus II then became the new leader of Protestant forces within the Holy Roman Empire. He died in battle in 1632. The French entered in 1635 and the Treaty of Westphalia ended the war in 1648.
22: Works Cited | Kagan, Donald, Steven E. Ozment, and Frank M. Turner. The Western Heritage: since 1300. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007. 352-414. Print. Perry, Marvin, Joseph R. Peden, and Laue Theodore H. Von. "Chapter 10: The Reformation." Sources of the Western Tradition. 6th ed. Vol. 1. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2006. Print.
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