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Reformers Book

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FC: Reformers

1: Abolitionists

2: William Lloyd Garrison | William Lloyd Garrison was a radical white abolitionist whose goal was to outlaw slavery. He was the editor of a newspaper called "The Liberator" and attacked the government and other churches for not ending slavery.

3: Frederick Douglass | Frederick Douglass was a slave who learned to read and write and thought that knowledge was the key to freedom. He escaped from the plantation he was enslaved on and headed up North. Later on in his life he published the North Star.

4: Nat Turner's Revolt | This revolt was led by Nat Turner in South Hampton Country, VA. In this revolt, 80 followers attacked four plantations. Approximately 60 white people were killed and Nat Turner himself was captured and executed. This event scared other southern plantation owners and strengthened their cause to keep control of their way of life.

5: Religion

6: William Channing | William Channing was a man who ended up introducing new denominations under the Christian Faith in his lifetime. He denied the existence of the Holy Trinity and said that God existed in one person. He inspired individuals to follow in God's footsteps and preached the idea that the common man could be like God.

7: Charles Finney | Charles Finney was trained as a lawyer but became an evangelist later on in his life. He was a minister during the Second Great Awakening and was a powerful speaker which reflected in his messages he would give. He thought slavery was a great national sin and preached that individuals had the ability to seek their own salvation.

8: Joseph Smith | Joseph Smith is a man who claimed to have received spiritual information from an angel. He started the Mormon faith and wrote the book of Mormon which added an extra set of guidelines to the bible. He had moved from New York to Illinois where he was then killed by a mob.

9: Education

10: Horace Mann | Horace Mann was the first Massachusetts Board of Education Secretary and established teacher training programs, instituted curriculum reform, and doubled states spending. He also began a movement for tax-supported public schools. Because of him, education attendance became mandatory in Massachusetts and Vermont.

11: Prudence Crandall | Prudence Crandall was a Quaker who is responsible for opening a school for girls in Canterbury. She also was the first to admit an African American girl into her school. Many people disagreed with what Prudence was doing and would express their opinions in whatever way suited them. It didn't take too long for things to become violent and because of a riot she was forced to shut down her school because of the fear she had for her students safety.

12: Elizabeth Blackwell | Elizabeth Blackwell was the first women to graduate from medical school. After she graduated she moved to New York and there she opened an infirmary for women and children.

13: Art and Literature

14: Hudson River School | Hudson River School was a group of artists who painted landscapes. In their paintings they didn't copy how the Europeans painted and they wanted to capture the look of the true America.

15: Washington Irving | Washington Irving began writing at the age of 17 and wrote about the American spirit. He is considered to be a true American writer and was a member of the knickerbacker group (a group of young energetic writers from the New York area).

16: Nathaniel Hawthorne | Nathaniel Hawthorne was a writer who focused on Puritan tragedy and the concepts of evil and death. He accepted the world as an immoral place and attacked the transcendentalists and Utopians. Wrote the Scarlet Letter.

17: Economics

18: Cyrus McCormick | Cyrus McCormick, commonly referred to as the father of modern agriculture, invented the mechanical reaper that was drawn by a horse in 1831. His invention would automatically cut, thresh, and bundle grain which saved time and effort of farmers allowing one to do the work of five.

19: Robert Fulton | Robert Fulton was a painter/engineer. He invented the steam engine boat by installing a powerful steam engine in a vessel which ended up traveling 150 miles in 32 hours. Because of his invention, people could now ship goods throughout the country at a lower cost and his invention played a vital role in the opening of the West and South. His invention also spurred a rapid increase in canal building.

20: Elisa Howe | Elisa Howe invented the sewing machine which was later perfected by Isaac Singer. This invention became the foundation for the ready-made clothing industry which took off around the Civil War era. This invention also drove many seamstresses out of the comfort of working in their homes and into factories.

21: Reading and writing about some of the reformers showed me a little bit of how our country has evolved over the years. I've learned about where certain inventions came from which has showed me what led to other things being created and I've read about the ideas that other people have had that have shaped our country's history.

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