FC: Land Pollution | By:Teah Gray
1: Soil and land pollution is becoming a huge issue all around the world. Our land resources have been dwindling down to almost nothing. This is because we are using all the land for landfills and dump piles. There have been regulation laws passed to help lower pollution, although companies have found ways to work around the regulations and still pollute the soil("Pollution"). It has been estimated that there are 600,000 contaminated dump sites in the U.S. and that number is still growing(Batterman).
2: Almost everyone in the world has caused soil and land pollution in some way. Using agricultural fertilizers and pesticides, deposing of waste by landfills, and acid rain are common pollution types. Even simple automobile fluid spills on the side of the road eventually make it to the soil(Wee). Land pollution can happen anywhere. All you need is land and a form of pollution to be spilled or buried into the ground. | Land pollution had started to become a problem after the industrial revolution(Wee). The large production of goods has created a lot of land, water, and air pollution. The result to all the pollution was to create landfills. This just added to the soil pollution problem however. Now there is an large amount of polluted land all over the world.
3: Land pollution has became more known after a chemical spill. The chemical spill happened in Love Canal, New York in 1978(Wee). There was a canal built to create a water fall for a water powered city and then the build could no longer continue because of the depression after the war. The canal was filled with barrels of chemicals and covered with dirt. Overtime the chemicals were leaching into the soil and caused the residents of the area to suffer from health problems. This event opened peoples eyes to how big of a problem pollution really is.
4: There are many ways to diminish levels or remove contaminates from polluted soils. There are two main types of removal. These types are in situ and ex situ techniques (Bollag). In situ is when you treat the soil on site, and ex situ is when you remove the soil and dispose of it. Ex situ can also mean that you remove the soil from the contaminated grounds and take it to be treated, then replace it in the soil. In situ includes adding materials to the soil such as microorganisms so that the waste will decompose. "In situ biodegradation includes enhancing naturally occurring microorganisms by artificially stimulating their numbers and activity"(Soil Pollution).This means that there are microorganisms that are placed in the contaminated grounds that have been altered so that their population number increases along with their activity so that they can eat away at the polluted soil. | In situ Biodegradation
5: There are different treatments that can be added to the contaminated soil to weaken the amount of pollution. Some of these treatments include ion exchange, soil washing, soil flushing and oxidation. There are soil washing methods that include attrition scrubbing, wet screening, and "chemical techniques consisting of treatments with bases,organic and inorganic acids, salts, and chelating agents" (Bollag).Only using one type of treatment is not always the most effective for contamination removal. Usually more that one type of remediation is used to get the most pollution out of the soil. In situ biodegradation also can be accomplished by using microorganisms."In situ biodegradation includes enhancing naturally occurring microorganisms by artificially stimulating their numbers and activity" (Soil Pollution). These microorganisms help to degrade the contaminates from the soil.
6: Ex situ Biodegradation
7: Ex situ biodegradation is when you remove the contaminated soil from the pollution sight. The removed soil is taken off sight for cleaning. This treatment is more effective because it is carried out in a controlled environment (Wee). Once the contaminated soil has been transported to the cleaning sight, the pollutants can be removed by using heat treatments. These heat treatments consist of placing the soil through high temperatures to decrease the amount of chemical pollutants. The removed soil can also be incinerated or can be disposed of in a land fill (Batterman). Incineration or disposal in landfills are quick and the most popular ways to get rid of the soil pollution. However, these types of removal cause other forms of pollution. Incineration causes air pollution because of the fumes being released into the air and the chemicals being disposed of in landfills just transfers the problem to another sight. The best way to diminish the problem is ex situ treatments that get rid of the problem on contact.
8: Another type of biodegradation includes a treatment called Phytoremediation. This treatment can be classified as both ex situ and in situ techniques. This is because this process involves both for it to be successful. Phytoremediation is when you place plants into the contaminated soils. The plants will grow and the roots will absorb the contaminates out of the soil ("Soil-Net.com - Cleaning up Soil Pollution."). Once the contaminates are believed to be mostly removed the plants are removed from the sight and are disposed of. The plants pull the chemicals right out of the soil without disturbing the surroundings.
9: There is a solution for land pollution that everyone can do. This solution is recycling. Recycling is a common way to get rid of trash that can be used again for other products (Ackerman). Glass jelly jars for instance can be melted down and formed into other glass bottles for soda or candle holders. We recycle so that we get the most usage out of materials. | Recycling
10: Recycling helps to diminish the amount of land, water, and air pollutants. Recycling is common among households because recycling bins are supplied to help decrease the amount of waste. This solution helps to prevent land erosion and land disturbances caused when natural resources are removed from the ground. Recycling is great for the environment because less of the waste will be placed in landfills. It is not good to place waste in landfills because they emit gases that are causes of air pollution and global warming ("Recycling is Garbage."). Recycling is an excellent thing to do. It helps many different areas of keeping the world green. Recycling conserves less energy while creating the renewed product because the factory does not have to remake the material (Ackerman). Recycling conserves the materials already made and prevents the need for new materials. Recycling causes less pollution because the materials can be reused rather than being placed into a landfill and polluting the earth.
11: Landfills | Landfills are one of the biggest problems in pollution. Landfills are where trash is stored underground so that it can decompose overtime. There is not a solution to end the process of landfills. Although, there are solutions to try to keep the landfill safe and eco friendly. There are different layers in a landfill to help prevent the waste from polluting a wide spread area ("The Basics of Landfills.").
12: There are layers inside of the landfill that stop the spreading of pollution. These layers consist of "a bottom liner, a leachate collection system, a cover, and the natural hydrogeologic setting" ("The Basics of Landfills"). There are also three other layers to this process that are engineered. Each one of these layer takes care of something different but they all work together to keep the landfill safe. Landfills are usually water proof so that materials can not leak. They are very good at keeping everything contained, but they are still a pollution problem. There is a bottom liner to the landfill that acts as a basen to hold all of the liquids so they do not go into the environment. This basen is key to keeping chemical wastes confined to one area. There are three different types of liners that are used and they are clay,composite,and plastic. Each type of bottom layer has faults however. Whether it be them cracking or softening they do not hold up over time. The top layer to the landfill is the cover. This cover protects the waste from the rain, snow, sleet, and hail ("The Basics of Landfills.").They are trying to prevent the event of acid rain.
14: Works Cited Ackerman, Frank. "Recycling." Encyclopedia of Earth. Boston University. Web. 30 Nov. 2011.
15: Glass bottles. Digital image. Big Green Boulder. Dailycamera.com. Web. 9 Nov. 2011.
16: "Pollution Control--Some Success, Some Failure." SIRS Digests. Spring 1997: n.p. SIRS Discoverer. Web. 31 Oct 2011. "Recycling is Garbage." The New York Times Magazine 4 Aug. 1996. Infotrac Newsstand. Web. 25 Oct. 2011. "Soil Contamination | Superfund | US EPA." US Environmental Protection Agency. EPA. Web. 17 Nov. 2011.
17: "The Basics of Landfills." EJnet.org: Web Resources for Environmental Justice Activists. Action Center. Web. 01 Dec. 2011.