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SS&KD's Reconstruction Era Book

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SS&KD's Reconstruction Era Book - Page Text Content

BC: Sierra Scully and Kelly Devlin | By:

FC: Reconstruction plan for Gampistan!

1: To the President of Gampistan: Change needs to come to Gampistan! We have presented you with detailed information to aid in your rebuilding. We believe that the detailed events, photos and laws enacted during the time of our Reconstruction can be beneficial to you and aid you on your journey. It is our hope that the experiences we have endured will help bring the needed change and help your rebuild and achieve a successful Reconstruction.

2: Reconstruction-Era Political Cartoon This political cartoon from an 1875 issue of Harper's Weekly was a response to calls for removing Union forces from the South in the Reconstruction period. It was printed with a quote from a Birmingham News editorial threatening removal of African Americans in the South and characterize a Union soldiers standing between a cowering African American and a threatening former Confederate.

3: The people of Gampistan should follow a similar policy that the Americans adapted because they have already lived through the Reconstruction process. Gampistan citizens should learn from the mistakes and hardships endured by the American people. They can especially benefit from the positive effects accomplished by following their plan for Reconstruction. The Americans were able to successfully reinvent their society and have established a good role model for other societies. Proper planning with organization and cooperation by all citizens can lead to a positive Reconstruction in the Gampistan environment. Therefore, Gampistan should adapt a similar plan for Reconstruction as the American people!

4: Effects – The Civil Rights act of 1866 allowed all citizens of the US to make enforced contracts, and own, sell, lease, and convey property regardless of race. Radical Republican took control of the congress after the assassination of President Lincoln. They demanded protection for the freed slaves, and that southern nationalism was eliminated. Charles Sumner introduced bills into congress, such as, the 14th amendment to the constitution with it's equal protection cause. The Compromise of 1877 had a back door deal made by both sides to help recombine the north and the south into one country. It also ended congressional radical reconstruction. The Civil Rights Act of 1866 allowed all freed slaved to own property.

5: The Radical Reconstruction for the North/ radical republicans also granted rights to free slaves. The 13th amendment outlawed slavery. Freedmen’s Bureau set up many schools and laid foundation for black education in the south. Helped x slaves locate missing loved ones. Sherman’s General Field Order 15 helped deal with problem of tens of thousands of freed blacks who had nowhere to live. The Port Royal Experiment helps northern organization stepped in to help former slaves self sufficient Military supervised local government and elections and tried to protect office holders and freedmen from violence.

6: 10% Plan – was a southern state that could be readmitted into the Union once 10 percent of its voters swore an oath of allegiance to the Union. The Ten-Percent Plan was more of a political movement than a plan for Reconstruction. Lincoln’s Ten-Percent Plan was lenient, and wanted an attempt to attract the South to surrender.

7: Presidential Reconstruction- Johnson wanted to restore the Union in as little time as possible. While Congress was in recess, the president began to apply his plans, which became known as Presidential Reconstruction. He returned confiscated property to white southerners, issued hundreds of pardons to former Confederate officers and government officials, and undermined the Freedmen’s Bureau by ordering it to return all confiscated lands to white landowners. | Radical Reconstruction- gained almost complete control over policymaking in Congress. In the history of the United States, the Reconstruction Era has two uses; the first use wrap up the entire nation in the period 1865-1877 following the Civil War; the second one, use in this article, covers the transformation of the Southern United States from 1863 to 1877, with the reconstruction of state and society in the former Confederacy.

8: Black Codes-A body of laws, statutes, and rules enacted by southern states immediately after the Civil War to regain control over the freed slaves, maintain white supremacy, and ensure the continued supply of cheap labor. | Carpetbaggers- A Northerner who went to the South after the Civil War for political or financial advantage. Takes political power and money. | Scalawags- A white Southerner working for or supporting the federal government during Reconstruction

9: 13th Amendment- outlawed slavery in the United States. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United states, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. 14th Amendment- was first intended to secure the rights of former slaves but has since branched off to include other groups such as senior citizens, women, children, and people with disabilities and is the center of Equality in America. The amendment to the US Constitution which specifies who are legal citizens of the United States and their protections under the law. 15th Amendment-was written to protect the right of citizens to be able to vote, regardless of their race, color, or previous condition of servitude. Although this article promised a lot for African Americans of the time, states and local polls found loop holes in the legislation to prevent them from voting

10: Freedmen’s Bureau-is a federal agency formed to aid and protect newly freed slaves. It was made after the Civil War also established an act on Mar.3.1865 it was to function for one year after the War. It was to be in service for only one year but, on July 16, 1866, Congress extended the life of the bureau despite the veto by President Andrew Johnson. | Sherman's General Field Order 15.- were military orders issued during the American Civil War, on January 16, 1865, by General William Tecumseh Sherman, commander of the Military Division of the Mississippi of the United States Army.

11: Sharecropping gives you land shelter and tools but has to rein burst to give part of land Tenant renting land, not tied to the land with some kind of argument. | The Military Reconstruction Act- It divided the South into five military districts that were commanded by Union generals. It was passed in 1867. It ripped the power away from the president to be commander in chief and set up a system of Martial Law | Port Royal- To help by education and was a self experience by working land to see if slaves can own by themselves .

12: Ku Klux Klan- In 1866, Tennessee formed one of the most notable anti-black groups. They were against any power or rights a black might have. They were violent and often times they killed blacks "to keep them in their place. | The impeachment of Andrew Johnson- There was a law towards Grant that couldn't remove from office, but he did it anyway and got impeached. After he was impeached he no longer got in the way. | Ulysses S. Grant- The 18th president of the United States who was also the general of the Union army in the Civil War.

13: Charles Sumner- He was the author of the Civil Rights SAct of 1875. Sumner returned to the Senate after the outbreak of the Civil War. He was the formulator of the state suicide theory, and supporter of the emancipation. | Hiram Revels- was the first African American to serve in the United States Senate. Because he preceded any African American in the House, he was the first African American in the U.S. Congress as well. He represented Mississippi in 1870 and 1871 during Reconstruction. As of 2011, Revels is one of only six African Americans ever to have served in the United States Senate. (September 27,1827-January 16, 1901) | Civil Rights Act of 1866- Give citizenship African American protected by the 14th Amendment. The Civil Rights Act was created to grant citizenship to blacks and it was an attempt to prohibit the black codes.

14: Panic of 1873- surrounded a severe international economic depression in both Europe and the United States that lasted until 1879, and even longer in some countries. | Civil Rights Act of 1875- was a United States federal law proposed by Senator Charles Sumner and Representative Benjamin F. Butler (both Republicans) in 1870. Never lasted to the passing agreement. | US v. Kruikshank(1876)- was an important United States supreme Court decision in the United States constitutional law, one of the earliest to deal with the application of the Bill of Rights to state governments following the adoption of the 14th Amendment.

15: Slaughter-House Cases- 83 U.S. 36 (1873) were the first United States Supreme Court understanding of the relatively new Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution. States protect laws, (nothing in the national then states cant go around it and make it work) | The Colfax Massacre- occurred on Easter Sunday, April 13, 1873, in Colfax, Louisiana, the seat of Grant Parish, during Reconstruction, when white militia attacked freedmen at the Colfax courthouse. Three whites and 80-150 freedmen died in the confrontation. | “Redemption”- the act of purchasing back something previously sold in the history of the United States, was a term used by white Southerners to refer to the conservative Democratic Party taking over political power after the period of Reconstruction (1865–1877), which followed the American Civil War.

16: Compromise of 1877-During the electoral standoff in 1876 between Hayes (Republican) and Tilde(Democrat). The Compromise of 1877 meant that the Democrats reluctantly agreed that Hayes might take office if he ended reconstruction in the South.

17: Success and Failures | 10 percent plan Failure- Neither (angered many republicans- too lenient towards South) Lincoln assassinated Success- Neither (moderate plan aimed at shortening the war and spreading emancipation) | Radical Reconstruction Failure-Did not end racism or white supremacy in the South Success-For North/ radical republicans also granted rights to free slaves

18: Presidential Reconstruction Failure-Was too lenient on South-Johnson pardoned many confederate leaders he gives back land that had been confiscated and was to given to freed slaves | Black Codes Failure-They were unfair and kept white in control | Carpetbaggers Failure- A negative because Southerners distrusted these Northerners, who they saw taking advantage of them

19: Scalawags Failure and Success- Formed coalition with freed blacks and northern new comers to take control of state and local governments. Supported reconstruction (southerners) | 13th amendment Success- Outlawed slavery | 14th amendment Success- ensured civil rights | 15th amendment Success- voting rights | Freedmen’s Bureau Failure-Didn’t established land for free slaves and didn’t guarantee economic independence. Freedmens Bureau didn’t have enough money or man power Success-Helped secure justice for formal slaves, major success in education for blacks(set up many schools and laid foundation for black education in the south) helped x slaves locate missing loved ones

20: Sherman’s General Field Order 15- Failure- Because Johnson revoked(took back) the orders the following fall Success-Might have helped deal with problem of tens of thousands of freed blacks who had nowhere to live. | Sharecropping v. Tenant Farming- Failure-Because most farmers “fell down tenancy ladder” rather than climb up- most farmers could never gain enough money, little difference from slavery | The Port Royal Experiment- Failure-In 1865 president Johnson ended this and returned land to previous white owners. Success-Some northern organization stepped in to help former slaves self sufficient. Result was model of reconstruction could have been

21: The Military Reconstruction Act- Success-Military supervised local government and elections and tried to protect office holders and freedmen from violence | Ku Klux Klan- Failure of reconstruction – Klan groups spread as a rebellion against reconstruction and in anger against radical republicans. Trying to restore white supremacy | The Impeachment Of Andrew Johnson- Failure- Andrew Johnson was trying to get the country back together, but certain people from the north had wanted the south to pay to get back into the country. It didn't work because all the congressmen from the north wanted the states from the south to not be able to get back in. There was too much separatism.

22: Hiram Revels- Success- He was a success because he had readmitted into the union and promoted all people in the citizenship of the union. | Civil Rights Act of 1866- Failure- The Ku Klux Klan undermined all rights by terrorizing all free slaves in the south. Success: The Civil Rights Act of 1866 allowed all freed slaved to own property. | The Colfax Massacre- Failure: The voter for governor of Louisiana was debated. A group of white military men that were armed with rifles were overpowering the group of African American freed slaves, and black military, and killed all freed slaves present. This marked an inability for all white men in the south to accept black voters.

23: Panic of 1873- Failure-Railroad unions commenced the RAILROAD STRIKE, which prevented trains from moving, specifically in the railway hub of Chicago. These fights between the strikers and troops killed more then 100, but continued leaving even more injured. This caused voters to turn against the Republican Party. It also left most stated in debt and burdened with heavy taxes. Southern states fell to the Democrats, and the Republicans lost power, one by one. | The Civil Rights Act of 1875- Failure-This Act was a law that guaranteed everyone regardless of race, color, and / or slavery. The same treatment in public amusement, theaters, and inns. It was rarely enforced, especially after the 1876 election and withdraws of troops from the south.

24: Ulysses S. Grant- Failure- Upset at how slow respect for the civil rights of African Americans came and had an action against Black Codes, and violence in Southern states. This showed grant's poor judgment in selecting officials for his administration. | United States v. Cruickshank- Failure- In 1876 the Supreme Court ruled that the states and not the federal government could persecute individuals in the KKK act of 1871. Leading from this, many crimes against black people went unpunished. Later in 1883, the Supreme Court ruled that the civil rights act of 1875 was unlawful, ending radical reconstruction.

25: Redemption- Failure- They tried to press the educated blacks into civil service, running for office, but the KKK, and anti-black groups such as the red shirts, and white league undermined these efforts. (Red shirts the white league tried to keep the black people from having any kind of meaningful existence) Term used by white southerners, used by the Democrats in the south after the civil war. | The Slaughterhouse Cases- Failure-The slaughterhouse Cases were a failure to Radical Reconstruction because they weekend, the federal power to arrest people for crimes dealt with freed slaves. Basically, they were trying to sue something that had to be dealt with blacks, but the Supreme Court said that the 14th amendments protected citizens from protection of rights on a federal level, not a state level.

26: Charles Sumner- Success: Radical Republican that took control of the congress after the assassination of President Lincoln. They demanded protection for the freed slaves, and that southern nationalism was eliminated. | Compromise of 1877- Success: because of was the “backdoor” deal made by both sides to help recombine the north and the south into one country.

27: Change must come to Gampistan

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