S: Subarctic Peoples
BC: Welcome to this adventurous world of the Subarctic Natives. Inside is a whole new world to see and as the authors we have to say this is one of the best books we have ever written, so we really hope you enjoy it. | 25
FC: The Subarctic Natives | By: Ronny and Galia
1: Table of contents: Food page 1 Religious Beliefs page 3 Tools page 5 Transportation page 7 Geographic Location page 9 Tribe Leaders page 11 Special Events page 13 Clothing page 15 Arrival of the Europeans page 17 Shelter page 19 Bibliography page 21
2: Food For the Subarctic Peoples , food was an essential ritual! On foot or on snowshoe they would hunt, fish and collect different plants. Some of the animals they hunted were: moose, caribou, hare, oxen and elk . For plants they would collect: wild berries, dandelions, moss and marigold. In the winter, the Natives couldn't go hunting or collecting plants so they would go ice fishing. In the spring, the waters had many fish and they would catch many fish and sacrifice some, but would then also have good meals in the winter. The Natives needed food for it was a sacrifice to their g-ds. | 1
3: This picture shows the moose that the Natives in the subarctic hunted
4: Chipewyan’s believed that people could get special powers in dreams! Some of the powers were that they could cure sicknesses and control the animals that they were hunting. Shamans were usually the ones to possess this power. When someone would fall sick the natives thought that this was the work of a sorcerer of a different tribe. Although the only way the shaman could cure them was if his powers were stronger than the other sorcerer. But when someone died it wasn’t all that bad because they were thought to come back to the earth as men or wolves with super natural powers. | Chipewyan's believed that people could get special powers in dreams! Some of the powers were that they could cure sicknesses and control the animals that they were hunting. Shamans were usually the ones to possess this power. When someone would fall sick the Natives thought that this was the work of a sorcerer of a different tribe. Although the only way the shaman could cure them was if his powers were stronger than the other sorcerer. But when someone died it wasn't all that bad because they were thought to come back to the earth as men or wolves with super natural powers. | Religious Beliefs | 3
5: In this picture the shaman is healing the chief of the tribe.
6: There were many different tools that the Subarctic Natives used. Some of the tools were for the hunters when they went hunting such as: a bow and arrows, traps and snares. While the men went hunting,the women would make containers, weave with belt looms and make fishing nets that the fishermen would use for fishing. They would also use traps, spears and fishing rods to catch the fish. In fact the Subarctic Athapascans had different tools, for example: metal knives, baby chairs, kayak canoes and portable tents! But the importance in the tools is knowing when and how to use them. | Tools | 5
7: Above you can see some of the tools the Subarctic Peoples used, like the bow and arrow and the spear.
8: The transportation for most Natives was walking. Transportation was a vital part in surviving in the wild. Snowshoes were very important for winters, and in summers, the loads were moved by canoes on lakes or rivers. Although heavy loads would usually be moved by toboggans, and sleds pulled by people. If transportation was essential, what would happen if these were not available? How would the Natives survive? | Transportation | 7
9: Above you see one of the many canoes the Subarctic Peoples used. | Above you see the dogsleds the Subarctic Peoples used.
10: In the Subarctic there is a lot of snow!! First of all the land is mostly mountains, hills and foothills , but there are also lowlands, plains, uplands and trenches. The climate in the subarctic is very cold; there are 200-300cm of snow and it is cold!! As for vegetation, there are alpine sedges, grasses, shrubs forests and barren ground and under the ground they can find gold and diamonds! So all in all, the Subarctic Peoples chose a good place to settle down in. | Geographic Location | 9
11: In this picture you see the western side of the subarctic.
12: Just like every community has a leader, so did the Native people have a leader for every tribe. The Natives had tribes and every tribe had bands. The band had a leader which was usually the most skilled hunter so he can hunt food with other men for the women and kids in the band. The bands leader was usually the best looking person in the band. He was very tall and got a lot of respect. When the white people came to live with the Natives, they changed the setting of the tribes. There were never chiefs for the tribe and the white people appointed them. The leaders were very important to the Native people and always counted on them. | TRIBE LEADERS | 11
13: Some Natives tribe leaders.
14: The Natives had a very unique way to pray. They prayed to the sky so they can get rain. They believed that they can get special powers when they pray. The Natives put on special make up and clothing to dance.Their clothing had a lot of feathers and fur. The reason is because that is what that they had in their area. The Natives loved to dance and believed in it. | SPECIAL EVENTS | 13
15: A Native leader dancing.
16: The Natives clothing was very important to their environment. The Subarctic Natives lived in a cold area and needed warm clothing. Their socks were made out of blankets. Every tribe had a different design on their clothing. The clothing needed to be comfortable and warm for the winter. Women made clothing from seal skin. Other people made their clothing from animal fur. The clothing was very light so they can go hunting. They made their skirts out of mountain goat fur. | CLOTHING | 15
17: The fur was used because it was very cold. It took them only a few hours to make the moccasin. Every shoe had a different design. They were not water proof. To keep their feet dry they wore rubber galoshes. To the Subarctic Natives clothing was very important because they lived in a cold area and needed warm clothing to survive. | This is a jacket that the Natives used in the winter.
18: The arrival of the Europeans had a big impact on the Natives. The Europeans' culture was very different from the Natives, but they had a good relationship and traded with one another. The Natives liked trading with the Europeans for fur. For some tribes the relationship with the European wasn't very good. The Europeans were nice in the beginning, but then started to take over the area. The Europeans brought all kinds of diseases to the Natives. The Native Peoples blamed the Europeans for taking over their land and culture. | ARRIVAL OF THE EUROPEANS | 17
19: Europeans arriving and hunting for food.
20: The Natives' shelter was a big part of their lives. It matters where they lived to know what kind of shelter they needed, because they moved a lot and needed something to be able to rebuild easily. The Native Peoples needed houses that will be quick and easy to build. Their shelter needs to be moved so they can go hunting for food to eat. They needed shelter that will protect them from the cold weather. Their houses were very small and in the summer were made out of animal skin. Their houses were shaped like a wigwam. They made it out of the natural resources in their area. In the winter, they made igloos. In the front of every house there was a area to make fires. In the winter, it was to warm their hands and in the summer, it was to cook food. Every tribe in the subarctic had a slightly different type of house depending on their life style and personality. | SHELTER | 19
21: People living in their homes.
22: “Atlas natives.” 15 February 2012. < www.atlas.nrcan.gc.ca/site/english/leamingres - 2009?> “Atlas natives.” 21 February 2012. < www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/arctic - 2012> “Canada’s First People.” 10 February 2012. < http://firstpeoplesofcanada.com/index.html > “First nation and Inuit- clothing.” 3 February. 2012.
23: “Atlas natives.” 15 February 2012. < www.atlas.nrcan.gc.ca/site/english/leamingres - 2009?> “Atlas natives.” 21 February 2012. < www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/arctic - 2012> “Canada’s First People.” 10 February 2012.< http://firstpeoplesofcanada.com/index.html > “First nation and Inuit- clothing.” 3 February. 2012. www.eco_info/topics/first_nations_inuit/clothing.cfm King, JCH Arctic Hunters Canada: Douglass and MC Intyre , 1990. “Nieuwe pagina 1.” 29 February 2012. < http://whitewolve.com/native_americans/pagina_4.htm> “Religion and expressive culture-Chipewyan.” 2012 Advameg Inc. 15/2/12
24: “The Subarctic People-food/hunting/tools” 2007 Goldi Productions Ltd. 3 februrary 2012
25: “yesnet.yk.ca”.10 February. 2012.