BC: The End
FC: Sofia Gerloff, Mary Shipp, Ashley Salopek, & KyleMcKenna | FRENCH REVOLUTION
1: The French Revolution was a period from (1789-1799). The revolution was a social and political upheaval in France. The monarchy collapsed after three years leading the French society to undergo the chaos. The revolution began with the meeting of the Estates-General.
2: France was a country of poverty, many debts, and heavy taxation until Louis XVI created oppressive taxes and created finical and judicial reforms. He borrowed money from the court until the funds were all gone. The French people who were angered by the taxes, and spendings of the court recalled necker. Louis XVI was forced to call a meeting of the estates general. Members of the third estate enacted the Tennis Court Oath. This oath was signed by the 500+ members who were locked of out the meeting. This oath represented the first time the citizens of France rebelled against King Louis XVI.
4: 1.The first estate was the clergy, which mostly represented by Bishops 2. The second estate was the nobility 3. The third estate was the society
5: nobility | clergy | French society
6: All things grow better with love. | Riots in Paris and storming in Bastille
7: The riots for bread during the French Revolution led to the high tensions.The women would begin the riots because of how they angry they were about the price of bread rising. The storming of the Bastille occurred in Paris on the morning of 14 July 1789. The fortress and prison were known as Bastille. The fall of the prison was the main event in the French Revolution. The revolution began with a mob searching for prisoners and gun powder. The fortress was prepared for the mob but they were not prepared enough for the rage they would bring. Marquis de Launay was the governer of Bastille who prepared for the "small mob" but was not ready for the blockade.
8: THE GREAT FEAR
9: Events the led to the great fear were when the French government began to have many problems like that fact they were in debt. The French tried to prevent the debt but the tax reform they created failed. The French government was always having battles with the parliament. France thought they could get other countries to aid them, but know one would help them. The king started to make the nobles pay which angered them mostly. The great fear was a rumor to start that the nobles had hired people to ruin their villages. The peasants went crazy and began to attack the nobles buildings. This led to the nobles giving up there power, creating a balanced class structure.
10: The Declaration of Rights of Man was designed to help end corruption of the Government by designating natural unalienable rights to citizens. | All men were guaranteed the right of life,liberty,security, property,and resistance to oppression. | Example of one of the articles: 12.The security of the rights of man and of the citizen requires public military forces. These forces are, therefore, established for the good of all and not for the personal advantage of those to whom they shall be entrusted.
11: The national assembly seizes church lands turns clergy into public officials. | The national assembly main actions over the next years after the declaration was to help the falling economy. The main target was the catholic church because they were the land owners ofFrance. The catholic church fell under the Civil Constitution of the Clergy,which was a established national church system with clergy that ran in. Each section on the country was ruled by a official and bishop.The clergy had to take oath of loyalty to the constitution.
12: The Jacobins were a radical political organization behind the 1792 governmental changes. There were about 420,000 members in the club and thousands of chapters throughout France. The Jacobins influence the National Convention to find Louis XVI guilty of treason and to have him executed immediately. As a result of the Jacobins high influence, Robespierre also became high in power,but in contrast when Robespierre lost power so did the Jacobins.
13: FRENCH REVOLUTION LEADERS | Robespierre was a committee of public safety, prominent during Reign of Terror | Danton was a writer and a member of committee of public safety, and was guillotined | Marat was a radical journalist, and was assassinated by Charlotte Corday. | Louis Antoine de Saint-Just was a military and political leader. He was the youngest deputy elected to the National Convention.
14: During the French Revolution there were many major conflicts from1792 until 1802. The wars were divided between those of the first coalition and second coalition. Some of the wars were the War of Vendee, Quasi-War, and others that remained unnamed.The Treaty of Amiens ended the wars in 1902. | Wars of the French Revolution
15: Louis XVI was loved by his people but hated the National Assembly. After Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette were taken to Paris in the womens march to Versailles they tried to flee to the royalist fortress town of Montedy on the eastern border of France.
16: Committee of Public Safety Created in April 1793 in order to protect the republic from foreign attacks and rebellion within France. The committee was given its powers over military, judiciary, and legislation under the leadership of Robespierre. The committee ended in 1795.
17: Maximilien Robespierre- Influential figure during the French Revolution. He was a phenomenal speaker and changed the opinions and views of many. He believed the Reign of Terror was necessary because it was a time of discovery and allowed the citizens in France to see the real enemy. His reign of terror ended with him being arrested and later executed. | "To punish the oppressors of humanity is clemency; to forgive them is barbarity."
18: General Napoleon Bonaparte overthrew the French Directory, replacing it with the French Consulate. This occurred on 9 November 1799, which was 18 Brumaire, Year VIII under the French Republican Calendar. | Reign of Terror- Also known as just The Terror was a time of sheer violence during the French Revolution. It took place between September 1793 and July 1974 and was characterized by the rivalry between the Jacobins and the Girodins as well as mass executions. Over 16,000 people were executed by the "Razor" and 20,000 were killed in summary executions across France.
19: Napoleon and the Coup d'Etat | In 1795, a new constitution was drafted. This style of government was a bicameral representative and ruled along with another body called the Directory. The Directory was led by a group of five Directors. Some rules remained the same such as only citizens who paid their taxes were entitled to vote.
20: Napoleon Bonaparte 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader during the latter stages of the French Revolution.He was Emperor of the French from 1804 to 1815. His legal reform, the Napoleonic Code, has been a major influence on many civil law jurisdictions worldwide, but he is best remembered for his role in the wars led against France by a series of coalitions, the so-called Napoleonic Wars.
22: At this juncture the European powers decided to form the Fourth Coalition against Napoleon. In this coalition, England, Austria, Russia, Prussia as well as Sweden joined. Their forces proceeded against Napoleon in October 1813 and inflicted a crushing defeat on the French forces in the battle of Leipzig, This was second great defeat of Napoleon and gave a severe blow to his prestige. | The Fourth Coalition
24: Napoleon's Three Costly Mistakes | The Continental System - Napoleon's policy that forcibly closed all ports that prevented all trade and communication between Great Britain and other European nations. | The Peninsular War - In 1808, Napoleon made a second costly mistake. Because Portugal was ignoring the Continental System, he sent an army through Spain to invade Portugal. When Spanish towns rioted in protest, Napoleon deposed the Spanish king and put his brother Joseph on the throne. This move outraged the Spanish people and enflamed their nationalistic feelings, since they remained fiercely loyal to their former monarch.
25: The Invasion of Russia - In 1812, Napoleon's thirst for power led to his most disastrous mistake of all. Even though Alexander I had become Napoleon's ally, the Russian czar refused to stop selling grain to Britain. In addition, the French and Russian rulers suspected each other of having competing designs on Poland. Because of this breakdown in their alliance, Napoleon decided to invade Russia. As the Russians retreated toward Moscow, they practiced a scorched-earth policy, burning grain fields and slaughtering livestock so as to leave nothing that the enemy could eat. Desperate soldiers deserted the French army to search for scraps of food.
26: Napoleon is exiled to Elba - Following the Treaty of Fontainebleau and his forced abdication, Napoleon Bonaparte was exiled and landed at Portoferraio on the island of Elba on May 4, 1814. But Napoleon's life on Elba was far from that of a prisoner. He was allowed a personal guard of several hundred men plus a household staff. He was given the title of Emperor of Elba and given authority to rule over the island's 100,000 inhabitants, and he did in fact carry out a series of economic and social reforms while on Elba. In February 1815, just after 300 days of exile, he managed to escape back to France with his small army.
27: 100 Day Comeback - the period between Emperor Napoleon I of France's return from exile on Elba to Paris on 20 March 1815 and the second restoration of King Louis XVIII on 8 July 1815 | Battle of Waterloo - fought on Sunday 18 June 1815 near Waterloo in present-day Belgium, An Imperial French army under the command of Emperor Napoleon was defeated by combined armies of the Seventh Coalition, an Anglo-Allied army under the command of the Duke of Wellington combined with a Prussian army under the command of Gebhard von Blücher
28: The Congress of Vienna | Who? Ambassadors of European states. | What? International conference that was called in order to remake Europe after the downfall of Napoleon I. | When? September 1814 to June 1815. | Where? Vienna, Austria. | Why? The main goal of the conference was to create a balance of power that would preserve the peace.