BC: Vikings Adventures | by: Sean Horsford | BIBLIOGROFY | www.wikipedia.org mnc.net/norway/ericson.htm http://viking.no/e/people/leif/e-leiv.htm www.regiaa.org/vikings.htm
FC: Viking Adventures
1: The Viking Age | The term viking is to the Norse explorers, warriors, merchants, and pirates who raided, traded, explored and settled in wide areas of Europe, Asia and the North Atlantic Islands, from the late 8th century to the middle of the 11th century. The period of the earliest recorded raids were in the 790s until the Norman Conquest of England in 1066
3: Runes and Runestones | Writing in Latin was introduced to Scandinavia with Christianity after the 11th century. Prior to that, writings were writing in runes, the alphabet used by the vikings. A runestone is a raised stone with a inscription on it describing the past. The tradition began in the 4th century and lasted until the 12th century, but most date from the late Viking Age and are found in Scandinavia, although some can also be found in locations visited by Norsemen during the Viking Age. They are usually memorials to the deceased and were brightly colored. Runestones showed the different ways Christianity changed Norse society. The main purpose was to mark territory, to explain inheritance, to boast about constructions, to bring glory to dead kingsmen and tell of important events.
4: Although Christopher Columbus is regarded as the discoverer of the New World, Leif Ericson set foot in America 500 years before Christopher Columbus did. He was the first European to reach America. According to the Greenland Saga, Ericson set out to prove claims made by Islandic Trader Bjarni Herjulfsson about reportly sighting hilly, heavily forested land far to the West when blown off course while traveling between Iceland and Greenland. Ericson called this new land Vinland because he found 'wine-berries' there. | Famous Viking
5: Vikings were not like as people saw them to be. They were smart and they built things like the first lock and the first pirate ship. People think that vikings were smelly and vicious which is not all true. The vikings got their reputation from ransacking places where people could write and record history. | Vikings Inventions and Myths
6: Vikings Food | Fish is the vikings best resource when they are sailing. They drank different types of milk, or they drank beer or mead. Vikings food go from duck to mushrooms. They ate hare, fish, duck, mushroom, and berries. A heavy bread made from barley was also common. It was custom to eat gruel in the morning - a porridge with scraps of meat in it. Meat was usually boiled. Boiled sausages known as 'cauldron snakes' were a special delicacy. Vikings were not the healthiest people.
7: Vikings Every Day Life | Vikings life depends on the wealth of family. If the family is poor then they live in the town hall with other people. They would farm and collect meat for family. The females would make clothe and and do house work. Houses were constructed of wood and/or stone and the roofs were thatched, turfed or covered in wood shingles.
8: Weapons and Warfare | According to custom, all true Norsemen were required to own weapons, which they carried at all times. Their weapons were also a sign of their social status: a wealthy Viking would have a complete set of a helmet, shield, chainmail shirt and a sword. A lower class person (freeman) usually fought with a spear and shield, and most also carried a 'seax' as a utility knife and sidearm. Bows were used in the opening stages of land battles and at sea but were considered to be less 'honorable' than a hand weapon
9: Vikings also used axes as a main battle weapon. The 'Huscarls', the elite guard of King Cnut (Canute) and later King Harold 11, were armed with two-headed axes which could split shields or metal helmets with ease.
10: Ships | There were two main types of ships - the Longship and the Knarr. The Longship was intended for warfare and exploration and was designed for speed and agility. It was equipped with oars in addition to sails so it could navigate without wind.
11: The Knarr was a merchant vessel designed to carry cargo. One viking innovation was the 'beitass', a spar mounted to the sail that allowed their ships to sail into the wind. In the late 1960's, remains of 5 viking ships were found at the Roskilde Fjord. The ships were put there back in the 11th century to block a navigation channel which protected the city of Roskilde from an attack from sea.