1: Wetlands Samantha Bowers Nov. 7, 2011 Jay M. Robinson H.S. EES- Mrs. Knight
2: They are mostly freshwater marshes, although some are brackish or alkaline, They frequently occur along streams in poorly drained depressions, and in shallow water along the boundaries of lakes, ponds, and rivers | Non-Tidal | Because they are rather productive, marshes can support relatively large populations of certain mammals, such as muskrat
3: Non-Tidal marshes are most prevalents and widely distributed. Characteristic: soils, vegetation, and wildlife.
4: Can be found along the protected coastlines from Prairie potholes to the Everglades , Some are freshwater, others are brackish (somewhat salty), and others are saline (salty), Are normally categorized into two distinct zones, the lower or intertidal marsh and the upper or high marsh. | Tidal | Tidal marshes are normally categorized into two distinct zones, the lower or intertidal marsh and the upper or high marsh.
5: The Clapper Rail of the saltmarshes, which is more commonly heard than seen. | Tidal marshes also provide vital food and habitat for clams, crabs, and juvenile fish, as well as offering shelter and nesting sites for several species of migratory waterfowl. | The Great Egret (Casmerodius albus) winters in the tidal marshes along the Gulf Coast.
6: Swamps | A swamp is any wetland dominated by woody plants. | Swamps are characterized by saturated soils during the growing season, and standing water during certain times of the year. | Due to the nutrient-rich soils present in swamps, many of these fertile woodlands have been drained and cleared for agriculture and other development. Over 70 percent of the Nation's floodplain forested swamps have been lost.
7: Skunk Cabbage sprouts very early in the spring, melting the surrounding snow. The insects that pollinate it are attracted by its odor, which resembles decaying flesh. | Prothonotary Warblers are found in southern swamplands.
8: Bogs | They are characterized by spongy peat deposits, acidic waters, and a floor covered by a thick carpet of sphagnum moss. | Bogs serve an important ecological function in preventing downstream flooding by absorbing precipitation. | The unique and demanding physical and chemical characteristics of bogs result in the presence of plant and animal communities that demonstrate many special adaptations to low nutrient levels, waterlogged conditions, and acidic waters, such as carnivorous plants.
9: This Eastern Mud Salamander is resting on sphagnum moss. Sphagnum creates bogs by holding water and creating acidic conditions. Sphagnum itself may be up to 70 percent water. | The Northern Pitcher Plant overcomes the nutrient deficiencies of bog life by capturing insects in pools of water in its leaves and digesting them with the help of some local bacteria.
10: Fens | Fens, are peat-forming wetlands that receive nutrients from sources other than precipitation: usually from upslope sources through drainage from surrounding mineral soils and from groundwater movement. | These systems are often covered by grasses, sedges, rushes, and wildflowers. | Because of the large historical loss of this ecosystem type, remaining fens are that much more rare, and it is crucial to protect them. It is important to recognize that while mining and draining these ecosystems provide resources for people, up to 10,000 years are required to form a fen naturally.
11: Showy Lady Slipper is an example of a unique plant that thrives in fens