S: A Collection of Native American Research 2011-2012
BC: Mrs. Torriero's Third Grade Class Alphonsus Academy and Center for the Arts 2011-2012
FC: Native American Tribes | Mrs. Torriero's Third Grade Class
1: Native American Tribes A collection of research from Mrs. Torriero's third grade class.
3: Table of Contents Tribes of the Northeast Woodlands Region: Mohawk Abenaki Illini Tribes of the Southeast Woodlands Region: Chickasaw Seminole Tribes of the Great Plains Region: Sioux Tribe of Northwest Region: Tlingit Chinook Tribes of the Southwest Region: Navajo Tribes of the Great Basin and Plateau Region: Shoshone Ute | 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24
4: The Mohawk Native Americans lived in the Northeast Woodlands region. They were part of the Iroquois Confederacy. They mostly lived in Canada and New York. The climate was cold in the winter and hot in the summer. I was very interested in what the Mohawk wore. Mohawk men wore breechcloths with leggings. Mohawk women wore wrap around skirts with shorter leggings. Men didn’t wear shirts often. The women wore a poncho over their dresses. Mohawks usually wore moccasins on their feet. In the Colonial times, Mohawks adapted European customs like cloth. Mohawk people lived in long houses. They were about five hundred feet long. The long houses were made out of wood. | Mohawk
5: It took them about twenty days to build one. Each house could fit about five hundred people in it. The Mohawk Native Americans were hunters and farmers. The Mohawk women were farming women. Mohawk women planted crops of corn, beans, and squash. They also harvested wild berries and herbs. Mohawk men hunted for deer and elk. The Mohawk Native Americans had many different arts and customs. They made dolls out of wood. The dolls looked a lot like a little toy. They also made flags. Their flags looked a little like our flag. They also made war clubs. | 5 | The war clubs looked like bats that were curved and had spikes. Here are some of the interesting facts that I learned about the Mohawk tribe. Mohawk men were famous for the way they looked. They shaved the sides of their heads and just left a strip of hair down the middle. It was called a mohawk. The men also put grease in their hair and all over their bodies. I enjoyed learning about this tribe. By, Declan Hickey
6: Abenaki The Abenaki Native Americans lived in the Northeast Woodlands region. A lot lived in the states of Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire and Massachusetts. The eastern Abenaki tribes also lived in parts of Canada. In the summertime it was hot and humid. In the winter it was cold, snowy, and rained a lot. This is the Abenaki clothing. Abenaki men wore breechcloths with leather leggings. Abenaki girls wore wrap around deer skin skirts. Shirts were not needed in the Abenaki culture. In nice weather both boys and girls wore poncho like shirts, cloaks, and pointed hoods. Later, the Abenaki used other clothes such as cloth blouses and jackets. They decorated them with fancy beads.
7: Here are some of the interesting things I learned about their housing. One of the houses the Abenaki lived in was the long house. They could fit up to five families in each long house. Their long houses were made out of birch trees. This type of house was not easy to take down. Another type of house was the wigwam. They used this house when they were hunting. The wigwam was easy to take down. This is what the Abenaki Native Americans ate. The Abenaki hunted deer and moose. They also fished in rivers. The Abenaki also planted corn and beans, picked berries, and made syrup from tree sap. This is some of the other interesting facts that I learned about the Abenaki tribe. The Abenaki tribe made baskets out of a brown ash tree. Most of the time a man would cut down the tree. The Abenaki also went ice fishing. They used a lot of deer skin to make their clothing. These Indians also wore rabbit fur hoods in the winter. By, Paris Zapp | 7
8: Illini | Our tribe is the Illini tribe. This tribe was from the Woodlands. It was located in the Northeast region. The weather in this region was hot in the summer and cold in the winter. Their clothing was made out of deer skin and buffalo skin. The men wore breechcloths and leggings. Women wore skirts. They didn’t wear long pants in the winter. These Native Americans did not wear long headdresses. That’s what the Illini tribe wore. Surprisingly the Illini tribe didn’t live in tee-pees. They lived in reed houses. The reed house was a long wooden house. The walls and roof were covered in dried reeds. I think they put reeds on the walls to protect themselves from rain. This is the food of the Illini tribe. They ate berries, nuts, beans,
9: squash, corn, and fish. They hunted deer, buffalo, and bear. The Illini also made corn bread, soup, and stew. Their water came from lakes. The women had to do most of the farming. These are some of the arts and customs of the Illini tribe. They made a ring of fire to herd buffalo toward a group of hunters. They also told legends and fairy tales. The Illini also tattooed each other. These Native Americans were known for their quill work and bead work. They made clothes too. Even today the Illini are known for making beautiful art and jewelry. Here are some of the other interesting facts that we learned about the Illini tribe. They made dolls out of corn and they were called corn husk dolls. The men loved canoeing, I mean LOVED canoeing. These Native Americans ate soup from their shoes. Finally, there were no schools. The grownups taught the children how to cook and hunt. By, Sophia Tallud & Frederick Hilgart | 9
10: breechcloths with leather leggings. The girls had skirts made of woven fiber or bear skin. They all wore moccasins on their feet. The Chickasaw lived in log cabins and teepees. The log cabins had river cane walls and thatched roofs. The teepees were made of wood and deer skin. They lived in villages and rode horses. The Chickasaw Native Americans also built tall walls around their villages to protect themselves from intruders. | Chickasaw These Native Americans lived in the Southeast region. Some of the states they lived in were Arkansas, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Tennessee. The weather in this region was mostly hot. While the Chickasaw today dress like me and you, their clothing years ago was very different. The men wore
11: The Chickasaw did not have stores so they farmed and hunted. The women farmed. They grew corn, beans, squash, and sunflowers. They also picked nuts, berries, and plums. The men hunted for turkeys and deer. The Chickasaw had lots of customs and art. The Chickasaw were known for telling stories like fairy tales and myths. They also made lots of art. The women wove baskets. They also carried their babies in cradleboards. The Chickasaw liked making baskets from river cane, wood carvings, pottery, and bead work. These are some of the other interesting facts that I learned about this tribe. They played toil. Toil is like lacrosse. Chickasaw Native Americans did not harm people, they were peaceful. They were also known for speaking English. By, Colin Pilcher | 11
12: leggings. The boys wore long shirts until they were two years old. If I was a Native American, I would like to wear these types of clothes. The Seminoles had very interesting houses. One of the houses was called a chickee. The chickee had no walls because it was so hot. It also had a wooden platform that was above the ground to keep the snakes away. When it got colder, they also lived in a winter home. This winter home was used as a kitchen all year long. This is the Seminoles' food. They were hunters and farmers. They had | Seminole This is the Seminole tribe. The Seminole tribe was from the Southeast Woodlands. This region was located in these states: Virginia, Florida, and Georgia. The weather was seasonal, hot in the summer and cold in the winter. The Seminole tribe wore colorful clothing. The women wore long skirts. The men wore breechcloths and deer skin
13: lots of wild life. There was corn, beans, green beans, squash, strawberries, melon, blueberries, potatoes, and also some nuts. The animals that they hunted were rabbits, deer, fish, and alligators. The Seminole women had lots of cool customs and art. The women made dolls. The dolls were made out of palmetto leaves and thread. They also made quilts. The women wove the quilts out of different color threads. Each year, the women got a necklace for their birthday. They wore all of their necklaces at the same time! So the older the woman, the more necklaces she had around her neck. The Seminoles had lots of interesting facts. The women carried babies on their backs. They had two houses, a winter home and a chickee. They | 13 | played a game like lacrosse called wooden stick. Girls played with lots of toys. They only wore feathers for ceremonies. These are all the facts that we know about the Seminole tribe! By, Grace Tibshrany & Molly Joseph
14: Sioux The Sioux tribe was from the Great Plains region. The weather in this region was hot in the summer and cold in the winter. They mostly lived in the states of Wisconsin, Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, Iowa, Nebraska, Montana, and northern Illinois. We all loved learning about the Sioux tribe. The Sioux clothing was very interesting. The women had work dresses made out of elk and deer skin. | The men wore headdresses, t-shirts, and breechcloths. A breechcloth was made from deer skin. It was a u-shape piece of material that looked like a speedo. They all wore moccasins which are a type of shoes made from leather. Sioux houses were very interesting. Back then they had to build their houses. Instead of a house, it was called a teepee. They were made out of buffalo skin and big branches from trees. They had paintings on the inside of the teepees. They used poles at the top to support the teepees. The teepees also had a hole at the top so that smoke from their cooking fire could get out. This is the food that Sioux people ate. They were corn farmers. They were also hunters. Sioux people at buffalo, elk, and deer. The Sioux Native Americans also cooked in dried pits.
15: This is some of the Sioux art. The Sioux painted buffalo hide. They painted buffalo hide to cover their teepees. These paintings also made their houses pretty for celebrations. They also made pottery. They made bowls, cups, and vases. The Sioux tribe used the bowls to eat food and the cups to put their drinks in. These are some other facts that we found interesting about the Sioux tribe. The most interesting fact was when they killed an animal and got some blood from the animal. They used the blood to make dots on their feathers to count how many animals they had killed. The Sioux boys made buffalo hide paintings. Their headdresses were made from animal skin with feathers on top. Usually only the chief wore a large headdress. Women only wore up to three feathers on a headband. The women made the headbands by braiding strips of leather together. The Sioux was a very interesting tribe! | 15 | By, Molly Devlin, Ella O’Neil, and Sofia Mandeville
16: wore chilkat robes made of roots. They made hats out of roots too. The men wore breechcloths and animal skins. The animal skin was sometimes painted. So that’s some handmade clothing for you! The Tlingit lived in rectangular cedar plank houses. The cedar plank house had a bark roof. Usually their homes were large (up to 100 feet long). Several families from the same clan lived together in one cedar plank house. The Tlingit were fishing people. Tlingit men caught fish and sea mammals out of their canoes. They also hunted deer, mountain goats, and birds. Some Tlingit bands, who lived further inland, hunted bigger game like caribou and moose. Tlingit women gathered shellfish, seaweed, berries, and roots. The Tlingit had cool customs and made beautiful artwork. Tlingit artist were known for their fine basket making and carving | Tlingit The Tlingit tribe has a lot of cool features. They were located in the Northwest region. They mostly lived on the coast of California, Oregon, and a bit in Washington. The weather was cool in the summer and cold and wet in the winter. The Tlingit tribe members were great knitters. The women of the Tlingit wore short skirts made of cedar bark. They also
17: arts. They also made totem poles and chilkat robes. The Tlingit traded regularly with all the other tribes along the northwest coast and the far north. The Tlingit also made dugout canoes. Tlingit women gathered plants and herbs. The women also did most of the childcare and cooking. Men were fishermen, hunters, and sometimes went to war to protect their families. Both men and women took part in storytelling, artwork, and music. The Tlingit chief was always a man but clan leaders were men or women. Tlingit fishermen used harpoons, bone fishhooks, and fish traps. I learned some interesting facts about the current culture of the Tlingit tribe. Today, the Tlingit have their own laws and government. They have a reader, clan leader, head of Tlingit operations, and a vice leader. So if you lived on their reservation, you would have new laws to follow. By, Aidan Farris | 17
18: made out of animal skin and capes made out of bark. When it was cold, they wore robes made out of fur and moccasins on their feet. Sometimes in the winter they wore blanket robes made out of grass and fur. The Chinook clothes were really creative. Chinook Native Americans had very creative houses. They lived in cedar plank houses made out of bark. These houses were up to seventy feet long. You could put many families in there. The cedar plank houses were rectangular. The Chinook houses were really cool. The Chinook had many kinds of food. Chinook people were fishers. They caught fish, crab, squid, lobster, and other sea creatures. The men collected these foods. Women collected shellfish, seaweed, berries, and roots. The men also hunted deer, birds, and small animals. The Chinook were not farmers. They ate land animals more than sea creatures. The Chinook had very interesting food. | Chinook Chinook Native Americans lived in the Northwest region. They mostly lived in Oregon and Washington. The weather in the summer was cool. The weather in the winter was mild and wet. It rained there a lot. The Chinook had many different kinds of clothing. The men wore breechcloths made out of bamboo. Women wore short skirts made out of bark or grass. When it rained in the summer they wore tulle rush
19: Chinook Native Americans made very creative arts and had many active customs. They made bear grass baskets and wood carving carts. They also made face paints, sculpture paints, and painted their houses. Chinook men and women gathered plants, herbs, and clams. Women did most of the childcare. Men were fisherman, hunters, and protectors. Both men and women took part in storytelling, art work, and music. Chinook children played with their friends and also helped around the house. Here are some interesting facts about the Chinooks. This tribe combined Chinook, Nootka, English, and other languages to speak to other Native Americans. Today many Chinook Native Americans live in Washington. The Chinook language is called Chinook Jorgen. The Chinook chief was always a man, but clan leaders could be men or women. Chinook Native Americans have many fun, interesting facts! By, Elizabeth Chinlund and Anna Byrne | 19
20: Navajo The Navajo tribe lived in the Southwest region. They lived in Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, and Colorado. The weather was very hot and humid because they lived in the desert. The Navajo tribe wore lots of colorful clothing. The women wore beads on the bottom of their dresses. The men wore moccasins and breechcloths. In the winter they wore rabbit fur and deer skin. They made clothes out of yucca fiber. They were famous for their silver and turquoise ornaments. The Navajo lived in one type of house which was the hogan. Back then, the Navajo called the hogan their traditional house. The Navajo made their houses out of mud, sand, sticks, and rocks. They dug a hole in their hogan for a basement to get cold air in the ground. The
21: sturdiness of the hogan also protected them from weather like rain, thunder, and hard wind. The Navajo Native Americans were gathers and hunters. Their grasslands foods were wild berries, herbs, squash, beans, corn, pumpkins, and nuts. The living foods that they hunted for were jack rabbits and coyotes. That is what the Navajo ate. The Navajo Native Americans made all different types of art from scratch. They made sand paintings, baskets, and jewelry. They also made clay pots. The sand paintings were made out of painted sand. That is what they made. The Navajo tribe did all sorts of other things. The Navajo tribe walked everywhere. They had their own government. The first Native Americans hunted mammoths. They also hunted buffalo and ate wild plants. | 21 | By, Colin White, Greta Wedemeyer, and Aidan Roggow
22: porcupine quills and they put beads on the dresses. Both men and women wore moccasins on their feet. The men wore pants and shirts made out of deer skin. These were some interesting clothes that the Shoshone wore. The Shoshone tribe had very interesting houses. These houses were geared for the Great Basin region's weather. Also, these houses were made of sticks, rocks, and dirt. One very interesting house was called the wickiup. This house had a frame. It was made of rocks, sticks, animal hide, boards of wood, and finally animal intestines. This was one interesting house! The Shoshone were hunters. They hunted buffalo, antelope, deer, and sheep. They also hunted bunnies. The men fished for salmon and other wild fish like trout. The ladies collected roots. The roots were hard so they had to soften them. They put heated rocks in it. The roots softened and then they could eat them. These were the | Shoshone The Shoshone tribe lived in the region called the Great Basin. The Great Basin was filled with light grass and some trees. This region was located in the state of California. The climate in this region was hot in the summer and mild in the winter. It also rained a lot in this region. The Shoshone wore clothes made out of animal hide. The women wore dresses made out of deer skin. The dresses had
23: things that the Shoshone Native Americans ate. The Shoshone tribe had interesting arts and customs. Some arts in the Shoshone tribe were also customs. Some things like jewelry making for example. Their jewelry was made of beads and porcupine quills. The paint was also a combination. It was made of mud, clay, dirt, and water. They used this paint to make pictures. Shoshone Native Americans cut their hair if they were in mourning. That means they cut their hair when someone dies. These were some interesting customs and art. The Shoshone tribe had many interesting facts. Did you know Sacajawea was in the Shoshone tribe? She helped the famous explorers Lewis and Clark. Sacajawea helped them by telling them spots in the ocean. The word Shoshone means valley dwellers. The Shoshone people made their own moccasins. They were an interesting tribe. | 23 | By, Sean Froning and Declan Toomey
24: The men wore breechcloths, leggings, and deer skin shirts. Everyone wore moccasins and animal skin robes. Here are some facts about their housing. Most Ute who lived in the western part of the Great Basin lived in wickiups. These were small cone shaped or round houses. The Ute who lived in the eastern part of the Great Basin preferred teepees. The teepees were tall, cone shaped houses made out of buffalo skin and wood. These could be put together and taken down quickly like a modern tent. These are some of the foods that they ate. They ate many kinds of food. Ute farmed corn and potatoes. They hunted buffalo, elk, and deer. These Native Americans also gathered choke berries and other fruit. These are some of the customs and art of the Ute tribe. These Native Americans did some of the same stuff we do today like go to | Ute The Ute Native Americans were from the Great Basin region. They mostly lived in the states of Colorado, Utah, New Mexico, and Nevada. The weather in this region was rainy and sunny. These are some of the clothing that these people wore. Their clothes were made out of buffalo skin, bear skin, and deer skin. The women wore animal skin dresses.
25: school and help around the house. The boys liked hunting and fishing with their fathers. These children of the past had more chores and less time to play then kids today. They did have dolls, toys, and games to play when they were finished working. Two of the games they played were called foot races and shinny. The women did most of the cleaning, clothes making, and childcare. The men used buffalo, bear, deer, and elk bones to make tools. The women made dolls out of clay and deer skin dresses. They also used leaves and beads to make the dolls’ hair. Here are some of the other interesting facts that we learned about the Ute tribe. They made purses, dolls, and jewelry. They were known for being storytellers. The women wore lots of clothing and necklaces. The men were warriors and would fight intruders to protect their families. By, Barbara Fernandez and Hayden Frisby | 25
26: Anna Byrne | Elizabeth Chinlund | Molly Devlin | Aidan Farris | Barbara Fernandez | Hayden Frisby | Sean Froning | Declan Hickey | Frederick Hilgart | Molly Joseph | Sofia Mandeville | Ella O'Neil | Colin Pilcher | Aidan Roggow | Sophia Tallud | Grace Tibshrany | Declan Toomey | Greta Wedemeyer | Colin White | Paris Zapp | Meet the authors!