FC: American Growth in the 1800s
1: ManifestDestiny The belief in westward expansion was fueled by John O'Sullivan's idea of Manifest Destiny in the 1840s. He thought it was America's destiny to be in possession of the whole country - all the way to the Pacific Ocean.
2: Manifest Destiny caused people to start thinking about moving out west. This lead to the Indian Removal Act of 1830, which allowed the government to pay the American Indians move west.
3: In 1835, the federal government convinced some of the Cherokee to sign a treaty giving up their people's land. Most of the Cherokee didn't honor the treaty. | They wrote letters to President Jackson protesting treaty, but he didn't change his mind. Finally, the government sent an army of 7,000 troops who threatened to move the Indians by force when they refused to go. The Cherokee new that they would lose in a fight, so they gave in and began their journey to the West, known as the Trail of Tears.
4: Henry Clay, a spokesperson for the West, introduced his program called "The American System" in a speech he made in 1824. This system included a protective tariff, a program of internal improvements, and a | national bank. Clay thought that his three-part plan would work well, but not everyone agreed with him. Jefferson thought The American System favored the wealthy. Many people from the South agreed with him because they didn't see a benefit for them. A small portion of the plan went into effect. Their were some internal improvements and a national bank, but there was a lot of controversy about it.
5: River travel had several advantages over wagon and horse travel. It was more comfortable because they didn't have to travel over bumpy roads. Also pioneers could carry all their goods on river barges if they were headed downstream. Their were two issues with river travel. One was that the rivers in the East mostly flowed north and south, and most goods were headed east and west. The other problem was that it was hard to travel upstream by barge.
6: In April 1818, General Andrew Jackson invaded East Florida even though he had only been ordered to stop Seminole raids. The Spanish minister to the United States, Luis de Onis, protested this attack and wanted Jackson to be punished, but Secretary of State John Quincy Adams disagreed. Even though he didn't authorize the attack, he didn't do anything to stop it because he knew that the Spanish didn't want war and may be ready to settle the dispute over Florida. In 1819, Spain signed the Adams-Onis Treaty, giving East Florida to the U. S. and giving up claims to West Florida. In return, the U. S. gave up its claims to Spanish Texas and forgave the $5 million they had claimed Spain owed them for damages.
7: The people migrating to Oregon rode in canvas-covered wagons called prairie schooners. The route they took to Oregon was referred to as the Oregon Trail. | In the early 1840s many people planned to move to Oregon to make new lives there with the fertile land. This was called the "great migration."
8: Most Americans were loyal to the region of the United States they lived in: North, South, East, or West. | They thought of themselves as belonging to that region instead of the U. S. as a whole. Loyalty to their own region, called Sectionalism became more pronounced as people's beliefs about national policies differed.
9: When Andrew Jackson was running for president, he promised "equal protection and equal benefits for all men." This really only included all white American men. Jackson's message of equality spread during his first term. In the 1820s, democracy expanded, and people who hadn't | been allowed to vote before were voting for the first time. From 1824 to 1828, the percentage of white males who voted increased from 26.9% to 57.6%.
10: During the time that the Spanish were organizing the Adams-Onis Treaty with the U.S., they were also facing some problems on their home soil. In the beginning of the 19th century, Spain colonized what is now the southwestern United States and most of Central and South America. In 1810 a priest named Miguel Hidalgo led rebellion against against the government of Mexico. He wanted racial equality and the redistribution of land. Hidalgo was defeated and executed. Mexico gained its independence in 1821.
11: as well. Eventually, they came up with the Missouri Compromise, allowing Missouri to be admitted as a slave state and Maine as a free state. This agreement also banned slavery in the rest of the Louisiana Territory north of the 36 | When Missouri, part of the Louisiana Purchase, wanted to be part of the Union, the South wanted it to be admitted as a slave state and the North wanted it to be free. This issue was debated throughout the country. While Congress was focused on Missouri, Maine also applied for statehood, so they had to consider Maine in the debate
12: In 1822, when Spain fought the revolutionary forces in South America it asked the Quadruple Alliance- France, Austria, Russia, and Prussia- to help them. When President Monroe heard that there would be more Europeans in America, he decided to issue the Monroe Doctrine. This document stated that even though the U.S. wouldn't interfere with existing European colonies in the Americas, it would be against new ones.
13: Andrew Jackson was elected for president in 1828. By this point the one political party, the Jeffersonian Republicans, had divided into two parties: the Democratic Republicans, who supported Jackson, and the National Republicans, who supported John Quincy Adams.
14: In the mid-1700s, the production of goods began to change. British inventors created machines that did some of the work involved in making clothes. | People started going to work to earn wages. The change in the economy brought on by the invention of | textile mills and others like them that it is known as the Industrial Revolution.
15: In 1828, Congress passed a high tariff on manufactured goods from Europe. this was alright with American manufacturers because people would be more likely to buy their goods because they were cheaper. These manufacturers were mostly in the northeast. Southerners didn't like the new tariff because, even though they forced people to buy American-made goods, the prices were still higher.
16: Jackson decided not to run for a third term in 1836 and his former vice president, Martin Van Buren, quickly defeated the Whigs he was running against because of | Jackson's popularity. Soon after Van Buren was inaugurated, the U.S. fell into a deep depression that began with the Panic of 1837, a time when the value of land dropped drastically, investments declined, and banks failed. Many people lost their jobs and went into debt. Because Van Buren believed in
17: laissez-faire, that the government should interfere as little as possible with the nation's economy, he convinced Congress to establish an independent federal treasury. This would prevent banks from using government funds and help them guard against further bank crises.
18: The first people to go to Oregon were fur traders known as mountain men. They got their name because they spent most or their time in the Rocky Mtns.They came to trap beaver which in high demand in the eastern United States and Europe. John Jacob Astor, a fur trader established the American Fur Company, which soon became the most powerful in America. Many mountain men | adopted Native American ways. A clerk in a fur trade company said, "To explore unknown regions...was the mountain men's chief delight."
19: The first Mormon church was founded in New York by Joseph Smith in 1830. He believed that property should be held in common. He also supported polygamy, which angered a lot of people causing the | Mormons to eventually give up this practice. Smith formed a Mormon community in New York, but disapproving neighbors forced them to move. | They went to Ohio, then Missouri, then Illinois. In 1844, a mob killed Smith, and his position as head of the Mormons was taken by Brigham Young, who decided to move them to present-day Utah.
20: In 1849, people from all over the world to California in the hopes of finding gold. These people were called forty-niners. By the end of 1848, $6 million in gold had been taken from the American River.
21: In 1807, Robert Fulton created a steamboat called the Clermont. It could carry passengers up the Hudson River from New York City to Albany in 32 hours. Had they only used sails, the trip would have taken four days.
22: Even though the invention of steamboats made transportation much easier, the rivers only went north and south, making it impossible for goods to travel east to west by steamboat. In New York, De Witt Clinton thought of a plan to link New York City and the Great Lakes. They built an artificial waterway called the Erie Canal.
23: Eli Whitney Invented the cotton gin in 1793. This machine removed the seeds from cotton fiber much more efficiently than it could be done by hand.
24: Conclusion The people who lived in the South didn't support change as much as the North. The South wanted to keep slavery, and there were more Republicans in the South than the North, especially during Jackson's presidency. The Republicans were more conservative than the Democrats, who were known for being a little more liberal and didn't want a strong central government. The Native Americans didn't benefit from any changes because they had their homes and the land their tribes had lived on for generations taken away from them by the colonists. The colonists also caused the Indians to change their cultures and religions.
25: The past helps us make sense of the present because history sometimes repeats itself, and if we learn from our mistakes and successes in the past, we can know how to deal with problems of the present. The past decision of the people of the United States to elect John Quincy Adams was lead to the splitting if the Jeffersonian Party into Republican and Democratic parties. We now have the options of a few different parties to choose between and to nominate candidates for. The values, skills, and forms of knowledge that people needed to succeed were a knowledge of politics and of how to spend
26: their money wisely. They needed to value honesty and family. Lower class people in the 1800s had to have the skills to make their own clothes, grow their crops, or work in a factory for a living.
27: Works Cited Appleby, Joyce; Brinkley, Alan; Broussard, Albert S.; McPherson, James M.; Ritchie, Donald A. The American Republic to 1877. New York: McGraw Hill, 2005.