S: The American Revolution
FC: Continentals vs. Red Coats: The American Revolution By: Elise M., Amber W., Heather S., & Allyssa R.
1: Table of Contents: People of the American Revolution (Part one) ....................................2-3 Causes of the American Revolution (Part two).................................... 4-7 Events of the American Revolution (Part three)................................. 8-13 A New Beginning (Part four)................................. 14-18 Works Cited....................................19-21 Created by: Elise M.(Part one), Amber W. (Part two), Heather S. (Part three), Allyssa R. (Part four)
2: Nancy Hart was born in 1735 around the Yadkin River Valley. During the American Revolution, she was on the side of the Continentals. Supposedly, Nancy killed two out of five Tories that demanded for her to house them. According to stories, Nancy proceeded to get them drunk, steal their guns, and then kill two of them. As a matter of fact, the only county named after a woman is named after her. After the war, Nancy Hart settled down with her family, although not for long because she moved many times before settling for the last time in Kentucky and died in 1830. Nathan Hale was in the Continental army and was on a mission to get information when he was caught and hanged. However, Hale had only lived from 1755 to 1776, dying at a very young age. At his execution, he spoke the words, “I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country." Lyman Hall was born in 1724, and was most certainly on the side of the Patriots because he was considered have led the independence movement in Georgia. The beginning of his involvement in the revolution was when he was elected into the Continental Congress. Afterwards, he was forced to flee Georgia but returned to become governor for only a year, and then to move on to his private life and was involved in agriculture. Hall died at the age of 66 in 1790. Paul Revere was born in 1734. His most famous act in the Revolutionary War was his Midnight Ride, in which he rode to Lexington to warn Samuel Adams and John Hancock about British troops that were on their way. However, on the way to Lexington Revere also warned the colonists of the troops. This, of course, placed Paul Revere on the side of the rebels. After the war, Revere had an interest in business until he retired, and then died in 1818. Casimir Pulaski was born in 1745 and 34 short years later he met his end in Savannah while defending it, placing him on the Patriot’s side. He was from Poland originally, but when he traveled to Paris he met Benjamin Franklin who introduced him to the Revolutionary War. It turned out that the war was most of Pulaski’s life, and therefore he had no life after the war. | PEOPLE
3: Button Gwinnet was born in 1735 and short years later died in 1777. Death came upon him in the form of a duel in which he was wounded and proceeded to pass away three days later. Button Gwinnet was a Georgia signer of the Declaration of Independence, which obviously tells us that he was on the side of the patriots. At one point in his life, he was appointed as the leader of the Georgia militia but was forced to give up his role for political reasons. Also, he was the leader of the Council of Safety shortly before his death. Seeing as Button Gwinnet died at age 42, he did not have much of a life at all after the war. James Wright was the third and final royal governor of Georgia, and therefore on the side of King George the Third. Had the circumstances been different, Wright would have made a swell governor of Georgia. He completed palisades around Savannah as well as making the area forts stronger. However, he was a loyalist and with the budding revolution this just wouldn’t do. Georgians arrested him, only to have loyalist free him from prison and smuggle him on a boat headed for England. Later, Wright returned to Savannah to become Georgia’s royal governor for yet another three years. The royal government ended when the British retreated from Savannah, taking James Wright with them. He never returned and spent the rest of his days in England. Elijah Clarke was born in 1733 and passed away in 1799, and was on the side of the Patriots. He was the leader of a militia force that fought in the Battle of Kettle Creek. During this battle, they faced more than 800 British troops and defeated them! After the Revolution, Clarke proceeded to serve in the Georgia state assembly. Honoring his war service, Clarke County was named after him. Thomas Jefferson’s best contribution to the Revolutionary War was primarily writing the Declaration of Independence. In fact, he did it in around two weeks! After the Revolution, his involvement in American history continued as he went on to be the third president of the United States. Jefferson was born in 1743 and passed away in 1826. He was a very influential Patriot, seeing as he was eventually president! Thomas Paine was born in 1737 and the start of his involvement in the Revolutionary War was when he published the pamphlet Common Sense. At this point, Paine had been in America for a mere year, but he was already committed to the cause of independence. After the war, Paine returned to Europe, later returning to America and dying three in 1809.
4: Causes of the American Revolution
5: Stamp Act The Stamp Act (which was made in March 22, 1765) was just another way for Great Britain to get the colonists money. The Stamp Act was an act where deeds, marriage licenses, newspapers, etc. had to pay for a stamp for it to be legal in the colonies. The Stamp Act had the greatest effect in South Carolina because they had a major mailing post. Georgia, the people had to stop printing the one and only newspaper because it cost too much to make for the colony. This act was soon repealed in March 18, 1766. | Sugar Act (Georgia) The Sugar Act was large taxation on sugar, tea, wine, coffee, etc, and the colonists could only buy sugar, tea from Great Britain. Colonists were angry because the Sugar Act had a tax on tea and tea was a popular drink in Great Britain. This affected Georgia because the colony of Georgia traded with many Caribbean countries and with this Act they could not do so anymore. The Sugar Act was made in April 5, 1764
6: Quarting Act The Quarting Act was an act on colonists that said colonist had to house British soldiers. If a British soldier came to a colonist's house, they had to give the soldier food, water, and blankets. Colonists were angry at King George lll because they did not give money to soldiers to house themselves. When colonists had to house British soldiers it cost them lots of their money to give the soldiers their items that the colonists paid for themselves. | The Shot Heard ‘Round the World This battle started in April 1775 in Lexington and Concord. Paul Revere rode his horse to Concord to warn Samuel Adams and John Hancock that “The British are coming!”. There was a standoff in Lexington and 8 colonists died while 1 soldier was injured. The soldiers then marched to Lexington and were ambushed by 300 minutemen and 4000 colonists. 73 British soldiers had died and over 200 went missing after ambush. This was a sign that the war had begun.
7: Boston Massacre The Boston Massacre had occurred in March 5, 1770. This massacre started as insults thrown back and forth between colonists and a soldier. Some colonists start throwing snowballs at the soldier and soon more colonists started to crowd around the fight taking place. The soldier had called for help and 8 more soldiers joined. The soldiers had fired and 5 colonists had died that day including a freed African American Crispus Attucks. This event for some colonists was a cry for war and made some colonists question why the American colonies were with Great Britain.
8: Events of the American Revolution
9: Declaration of Independence: On June 1776, an idea of a Declaration to King George III was thought of by Richard Henry Lee. After a meeting, the colonies put together ideas for a document stating how they felt about being a democracy, how they felt about their treatment from the King, and that they wanted to be independent in the near future. Thomas Jefferson made this document a reality two weeks later. The colonies thought slavery was unfair, but Georgia refused to sign the Declaration if slavery was not allowed. The document was finally ratified on July 4th, 1776 and was signed by many people including Benjamin Franklin, John Hancock, George Walton, Lyman Hall, Button Gwinnett, and Thomas Jefferson. The Declaration of Independence was important to the American Revolution because it started it all! The colonists were fighting to reach independence, and this was the document that started it all.
10: The Battle of Kettle Creek: The Battle of Kettle Creek took place in February of 1779 near Kettle Creek and Washington, Georgia. This battle was led by Georgia’s Colonel Elijah Clarke on the Continental’s side. The Georgians defeated the Red Coats’ force of over 800 troops. This battle was significant to the American Revolution because it lifted the morale of the rebels as their first victory, allowed the Georgians to receive supplies and horses they badly needed and created hope that they could win independence from Great Britain.
11: The Siege of Savannah: In September of 1779, the French sent over 2 ships and 4,000 soldiers to help the 15,000 Americans lay siege to Savannah, which at the moment was in the hands of the British. Early the following month, October 9th to be exact, the Americans and French finally attacked the British. A quick battle took place in which the Continentals lost and Savannah remained in British hands for the next 3 years. A thousand American forces and 40 Red Coats were killed during this 45- minute time period including Count Casimir Pulaski, a Polish patriot. This siege was important to the American Revolution because although Americans lost to the British, it was yet another milestone to gaining independence and freedom from Great Britain.
12: The Battle of Yorktown: In June 1781, led by Colonel Clarke, Continental soldiers took the land by the name of Augusta from the Red Coats. In October of 1781, the French stepped in once again and helped General George Washington defeat and capture the British general, General Lord Cornwallis at Yorktown, Virginia. However, General Cornwallis was unaware of the 6,000 men on their way 6 days after his capture in British ships to come to his rescue. With the French on the Continentals side and stalling the British ships, we were able to maintain our grounds. In the spring of 1782, the British, believing that they could no longer manage to defend Savannah against the Americans, retreated. This battle signifies the last battle before the Treaty of Paris was signed and the Americans officially gained their independence.
13: The Treaty of Paris: Approximately a year after the Battle of Yorktown, September 1783, Great Britain finally gave in and signed a peace treaty called the Treaty of Paris which was also signed by the French and Americans. Finally, the greatest goal of the Americans was reached: becoming independent. This was obviously significant because without the signing of the Treaty of Paris, peace between France, Great Britain and America would have been a myth. This treaty was the official document that ended the American Revolution and gave America their independence.
14: A New Beginning
15: Government, as it is, creates a form of reliability and control over a country. In the case of democracy, this control comes quite naturally- for the people, by the people. For our country, after the Revolution, the quest for a sustainable type of control was first created with the Articles of Confederation. These were, to put it simply, was the first constitution of America. These articles were created in 1781 and were put into affect after all thirteen colonies ratified it. Although they did establish some sort of stabilization between the government and the people, there were many problems and weaknesses that it created. One weakness it created was a weak federal government. The Federal government divided power between central and regional authorities. However, since this government was weak, colonists were led to the impossibility that all thirteen colonies could become one nation. Along with these weaknesses came many others. Another weakness was between the states and the national government itself. Since the federal government was weak at the time, the Articles created a dilemma where states did not have to (or want to, for that matter) obey the regulations or desires of the national government. Plus, they did not have the power to enforce laws. In addition, the Articles did not have the power to tax, but put tariffs (or taxes, ironically) on trade between states. Usually, government revolves around a sturdy, yet reliable congress- which was not provided in the Articles. As you can see, this caused problems with national and governmental issues, such as a lack of navy, army, or even a system of national courts. Finally, to add to the liabilities of our nation’s first constitution, states could individually produce their own money. As you can see, this caused problems with trading, for in order to affectively purchase an item, one must convert their currency to match the responding states. As one nation, these liabilities caused many problems for the colonists in their new government. However, there were some assets to this Article. It did allow the nation to declare war and peace, (which can be either a positive occurrence, or a negative one), and they could also provide the ability to borrow or “coin” the money for the colonists’ use. Finally, the Articles allowed the use and operation of post offices. This helped the nation with receiving news and current updates. However, despite the wonderful assets that the Articles provided, the liabilities caused an abundant amount of problems for the colonists. Therefore, the Constitutional Convention was created in 1787 to abolish the Articles all together and create what is now known as the United States Constitution.
16: Much after the Articles were removed, America set her hopes for a new structure of government and foundation. To resolve this dilemma, the colonists created a new foundation for this country. This was known as the Constitution, which is by what our country's backbone is based upon. First, the constitution divided the national government into three branches: the Executive Branch (with the President, vice president, etc. who helped establish laws), the Legislative Branch (with the Legislature, obviously, who helped make laws), and the Judicial Branch (which helped justify the laws in the country). This was the basis to our government. However, there was a problem with the Legislature. Larger states wanted the representatives of the legislature to be based upon population. Smaller states, on the other hand, did not agree with this and demanded a right of way for all states to have an even number. As you may know from our government today, the legislature is divided into two separate parts: the representative and the senate. This came to be resolved with the Great Compromise. In this compromise, the legislature was dived into the Senate and the House of Representatives. In the Senate, there were only two representatives per state. In the House of Representatives, the amount of representatives would be based upon the state’s population. Now that the world seemed correct again, corruption soon followed (as it almost always does). Slavery, since the colonization of America caused a major problem. States in the south wanted their slaves (Notice how I am using the word “slave”, for this is a major role in the outcome of the Constitution.) to be part of their population. As you can probably see, this caused conflict because they (the slaves) would count as population in government (which would entitle the state to more representative power) and the slaves themselves would not have any right to participate in the government at all. This dilemma was solved with the 3/5 Compromise. By this compromise, only 3/5 of the slave population would count towards representation in the government. In other words, for every one person, the equivalent would equal to 3/5 of a slave. After these problems were solved, America now had its basic backbone. With the addition of the Bill of Rights to help with ratification, the Constitution became America's foundation- the backbone to the nation.
17: Soon after the Constitution was ratified, Georgia likewise changed its government to match those of our nation. Before the Constitution, Georgia's government was based upon something known as the “Rules and Regulations”. These were the basis of Georgia until a more permanent and suitable constitution was created. Now that the Constitution was created, Georgia created a more suitable, governmental constitution. So, in 1879, Georgia approved their government and changed it for the better of the state. The constitution of Georgia was based and edited upon the nation's constitution, so the government now had three branches: the executive, legislative, and judicial. This separated powers, but it, in turn, created an uneven distribution of power. This sufficed the state of Georgia for quite some time, until it was revised. Then, time went on, and then it was revised. Then it was revised AGAIN. Finally, it was revised for the tenth time on 1983 and it finally changed the state of Georgia for the rest of time. ( It is probably safe to consider the fact that it might be revised again, so technically, the last statement is false until proved otherwise.) | Abraham Baldwin | William Few
18: Our Country's Constitution | The Articles of Confederation
19: Works Cited Adherents. Web. 5 Oct. 2011. Deaton, Stan. History and Archaeology. University of Georgia Press, 12 Sep. 2002. Web. 3 Oct. 2011. Declaration of Independence. n/d. National Archives, Washington D.C. Ebert, Len. Intolerable Acts. 18 Oct. 2007. Picturebook.com Eyewitness to History. Ibis Communications, 2000. Web. 4 Oct. 2011. Fulton, Robert. Abraham Baldwin Pencil Drawing. 19th Century. National Portrait Gallery. Georgia Historical Society. Web. 5 Oct. 2011. Jr. Davis, R.S. The Battle of Kettle Creek Area Battleground. The New Georgia Constitution. Kreis, Steven. The History Guide. n.p., 11 Oct. 2006. Web. 4 Oct. 2011. London, Bonnie Bullard. Georgia and the American Experience. Atlanta, Georgia: Clairmont Press, 2005. Print.
20: Works Cited (continued...) Map of the Battle of Yorktown Where the British were Defeated by the American and French. 1781. Monticello. United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, n.d.. Web. 4 Oct. 2011 Ouzts, Clay. History and Archaeology. University of Georgia Press, 29 Jan. 2010. Web. 3 Oct. 2011. Pennsylvania Journal. O! The Fatal Stamp. Oct. 1765. Rare Books and Manuscripts Division. Polish American Culture Center. Westweb, n.d.. Web. 4 Oct. 2011. Readingstreetunit2. Web. 5 Oct. 2011. Siege of Savannah. n.d. n2geneology.com. Signers of the Declaration of Independence. Independence Hall Association, n.d. Web. 3 Oct. 2011. Signers of the Declaration of Independence. Independence Hall Association, n.d. Web. 4 Oct. 2011. Smith, David. SmithDRay. Web. 5 Oct. 2011. Sugar Bag. n.d. Shuttershock Images. The Articles of Confederation. n.d. United States Archives, Washington, DC.
21: Works Cited (continued...) The Connecticut Society of the Sons of the American Revolution. WhoIstheOldGuy.com, n.d. Web. 4 Oct. 2011. The Connecticut Society of the Sons of the Revolution. Web. 5 Oct. 2011. The Patriot Resource. n.p., n.d. Web. 3 Oct. 2011. The Patriot Resource. Web. 5 Oct. 2011. The Shot Heard Around the World. n.d. Schoolhouse Rock. The United States Constitution. n.d. United States Archives, Washington, DC. Thomas Jefferson. Web. 5 Oct. 2011. Treaty of Paris. n.d. National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC Wikipedia. Web. 5 Oct. 2011. William Few. n.d. Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.