S: European Explorers Hernan Cortes and Ferdinand Magellan
FC: Hernan Cortes and Ferdinand Magellan | By Naoko Tachikawa
1: I'm going to talk about differences and similarities between two European Explorers from the15 century; Hernan Cortes and Ferdinand Magellan. During the15 century, a lot of explorers were looking for new lands to get a lot of gold and a lot spices for their countries. Hernan and Ferdinand were interested in navigation when they were young. Cortes is a Spanish conquistador who sailed to the New World to find gold and to find valuable things.But Ferdinand was a Portuguese explorer who sailed to Spice Island in Asia to look for spices. | Introduction
2: Hernan Cortes Hernan Cortes was a conquistador, who conquered Mexico. He was born in the Spanish city of Medellin in 1485. His family was from the middle class but not wealthy. When he was 14 years old, he was sent to the University of | Salamanca to study law. He didn't like the school because he had no time to relax. He learned Latin and became good at writing. His parents wanted him to become a lawyer to support his family but he was looking for adventure in life. After two years, Hernan returned home because he failed his course. While he was staying at home, he became bored. He read a book about the New World. He wanted to be a part of it, he decided to be a sailor.
3: Finally in 1504, Hernan Cortes boarded a ship commanded by Alonso Quintero and they sailed from the west of Spain to get a lot of gold. First he landed in Hispaniola and met a governor who he knew from Spain. The governor told him that he could get land grant. After a few years, he arrived in Cuba and he received more land and native slaves. He became an important person in Cuba. Later, he married a woman Catalina Xuares who was the sister – in - law of Governor Velázquez. Unfortunately, they didn't | have any children. A few years later, he left Cuba and he arrived at Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico in 1519. There, he met a lot of Aztec people and the Aztec ruler Moctezuma. After, Cortes became the Governor of Mexico, he was seeking to consolidate his power, increase his wealth and put down his enemies. Cortez disliked Aztecs. He made agreements with these groups and headed for Tenochititlan with 500
4: soldiers and 16 horses. He built Mexico City on Tenochititlan. A few months later in 1520, Aztecs began to fight with Spanish. It was very bloody and Moctezuma was killed. From that battle, 240,000 Aztecs were killed and 30,000 of Cortés’s allies had been killed. Later, Cortes and his soldiers were forced out of Tenochtitlan. One year later, he returned to Tenochtitlan and conquered five million of Aztecs. In 1530, he settled in Cuernavaca, Mexico. | Three years later, he made his final expedition and discovered Baja California and explored California for a year. In December 2, 1547, he died near Seville.
6: Ferdinand Magellan was a Portuguese sea captain. He was born in Oporto, Portugal in about 1480. He was the third child of Rui de Magalhes and Alda de Mesquita. When he was 7 years old, his parents sent him to | a monastery school at Vila Nova de Mura. Later when he was 10 years old, his parents died. His parents were members of Portuguese nobility. This heritage gave their son the privilege of serving Portugal's royal family. Queen Leonor in Lisbon the capital of Portugal, helped Ferdinand and he moved to Lisbon. He received an education and he studied many subjects like advanced mathematics, geography, cartography and navigation. He also learned etiquette (good
7: manners or polite behavior accepted by society.) and hunting skills. When Ferdinand was studying in Lisbon, he heard that Christopher Columbus reached the New World by selling to west and Vasco de Gama reached India by sailing around Cape of Good Hope. These facts made him interested in exploration. Magellan wanted to lead Portuguese trade ships to the Spice Islands in southern Asia. To get there, he planned to go | around the Cape of Good Hope. He hoped to find new lands to claim for Portugal. In 1516, he went to the King of Portugal. He asked King Manuel for men, ships and supplies. But the King Manuel was not interested in his idea. After two years, he went to Spain to talk King Charles about a new plan to reach the Spice Islands. The King Charles liked his plan and helped him. He left from Seville in Spain in September 20, 1519
8: when he was 25 years old. He joined men sailing to India. He had five ships and 277 men under his command. While he was crossing the ocean, there were a lot of storms and high winds. While they were on the ship, the sun beat down on them. The heat rotted the food. Finally, in December 13, he reached the coast of South America. It was Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. They got a lot of fresh water and food. He stayed in Rio de Janeiro for two weeks. | Then, he continued down the coast of Uruguay and Argentina, looking for passage to the South Sea. While they were in Cape of the Virgins which is South of Argentina (today we call it Strait of Magellan), it was very cold and there were a lot were a lot of waves. It was very dangerous.
9: Magellan had four ships but while they were in Strait, he discovered that one of the ships, San Antonio was missing. He spent three weeks looking for it. But the San Antonio’s crew had returned to Spain. So, Magellan lost his supplies. Finally, he reached the ocean where the water was very calm and smooth. Magellan named it the Pacific. In Spanish, pacifico means calm. Magellan was sure that the Spice Island was | closer. But he didn't know that the Pacific Ocean was big. It was very difficult and long. Later, he ran out of food. So, they ate leather, sawdust and rats. Many crew members became sick and some died. Finally, on March 7, 1521, the ship reached the island and got fresh food and water. Then they continued sailing west. A few days later, they reached a land called Philippines. The people were very friendly. They agreed to serve the king of Spain and
10: some people became Christians. Magellan and about 60 men went to Mactan on April 27. The people on the island were ready to fight with Magellan and his men. The battle was short. The islanders had arrows and spears. Magellan told his men to go back to the ship. On the way, the islanders killed Magellan. Magellan ships continued sailing to Spice Island with 2 ships. In November 1521, the men found the way to the Spice Island. They put a lot of spices in both ships. Then they | started going back to Spain. Along the way, one of the ships sank. Only one ship returned to Seville with only 18 men in September 8, 1522. They were the first people to sail around the world.
12: Slavery | Slavery is the idea of owning another person and force him or her to work for us without payment. Slavery was not an invention of 1the 5th century. | This comes from ancient times. All ancient civilizations had slaves. Those slaves usually were prisoners. In the medieval period, Muslim traders bought African slaves along the east coast of Africa and sold them in India and in the Muslim world. In the 15th century, Europeans began to take African slaves across the Atlantic to the Americas. This trade lasted until the
13: 19th century. After the discovery of America, many European colonies needed a lot slaves. By 1800 more than 75 thousand slaves were brought to America. The Triangular Trade is a trade from Europe to Africa, Africa to America and America to Europe. The slaves worked mainly in cotton plantations and that cotton was sent to Europe together with tobacco and rum. That helped to create economic prosperity for the States and Europe. | The treatment to slaves was brutal. They had to work with very little rest. Male slaves worked was mainly in the plantations, and women worked as domestic servants. Many of those slaves were kidnapped, they lost their families, children and lived a short life because of the hard work and diseases they contracted in the New World. Hernan Cortes and his allies treated Aztec people very badly
14: More than 12 million Africans were taken from their countries. Not all the slaves came from America. We have the case of Hernan Cortes in Mexico. He treated Aztec people very badly.Aztec people had different attitude from the Spaniards. They had a strong sense of supremacy. But their methods were radical. The Spaniards gathered the natives together and shouted the essentials of the Gospel. Aztec people didn’t understand what they were saying. | Depopulation of Africa created lack of working force, which contributed to the decline of stable African society. Sensible leaders in Europe and America understood that slavery was inhumane. From Great Britain, Anti-Slave movement forced government to stop slavery in its colonies. In 1833, President Lincoln did the same in America. Finally after the Civil War, slavery was abolished. The last remain of slavery was in Brazil until 1888.
15: The Triangular Trade Map
16: Quiz | 1.What woman did Hernan meet in Cuba? 2.How many people died in the battle between Aztec and Hernan’s allies? Who was the most important man who was killed in this battle? 3.What things made Magellan interested in exploration?
17: 4.What was the problem in The Strait of Magellan? 5.How was the treatment of slaves in the New World? What did Male and female slaves work?
18: Bibliography of Text | Hernan Cortes Aztec History. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Apr. 2010.
19: Bibliography of Pictures | Hernan Cortes http://www.aztec-history.com/images/hernan-cortez-biography.jpg http://media-2.web.britannica.com/eb-media/58/19358-004-EE106B7C.jpg http://www.nosoloviajeros.com/imagenes/miscelanea/hernan-cortes.jpg Ferdinand Magellan http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3215/2817828878_ddf7701698.jpg http://content.answers.com/main/content/img/getty/1/5/51239115.jpg http://www.heritage-history.com/books/ober/magellan/front1.gif Map http://users.rcn.com/farrands/magellan.gif http://www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anth3618/images/cortezs_route.jpeg http://answersinhistory.files.wordpress.com/2007/01/slavery.gif http://188.8.131.52/museum/education/ghana_tst_images%5Cscreen_size/d5_triangular_trade_map.jpg