S: The Greatness of the Cell
BC: CellBook Derrick Ogola Nyk Mason Hope You Enjoyed It!
FC: Cellbook Derrick Ogola Nyk Mason
1: All living things are composed of cells Cells are the basic unit of life New cells are created from existing cells | Cell Theory | The study of cells began about 330 years ago, and it has only continued to improve.
2: Scientific | Robert Hooke (1665): Hooke is an English scientist who discovered cells while looking at a piece of cork. He was only able to see the cell wall because the cells were dead. Hooke used the term cells to describe units in plant tissue, because the term cell in Latin means "small compartment". He recorded his findings in his book Micrographia. | Matthias Jakob Schlieden (1838): Schlieden is a German botanist born in Hamburg and educated at the University of Heidelburg. He concluded that all plant tissue was composed of cells. He also stated that cells are the basic unit of life. This statement made him the first generalist in terms of the cell. In 1838, he stated that all new cells formed from the nuclei of old cells. He was later proven wrong on this statement, but his conception of the cell still stands correct.
3: Discoveries | Theodor Schwann(1839): Schwann was a German boiologist who was born in 1810. Schwann came to the same conclusion as Schleiden about cells, which ended the argument that plants and animals were made up of different materials. He gathered his information and created what is now known as the cell theory. | Rudolph Virchow(1855): Virchow was a German botanist who studied under Johannes Muller. In 1855 he made an important expansion in the cell theory, which was that all cells arise from preexisting cells. This has been accepted as the Biogenic Law. It implied that there was no spontaneous generation of cells from non-living matter.
4: Prokaryotic Cells | Scientists believe that prokaryotes were the first life on Earth in the form of bacteria, about 3.5 billion years ago. They lack a nuclear membrane and the only organelles in the cytoplasm are ribosomes. Unlike eukayotes, the DNA in prokaryotes float freely in an unorganized manner. Prokaryotes are considered "primitive", although they are extremely important and serve purposes such as decomposition and digestion.
5: Eukaryotic Cells | Eukaryotes are cells containing special organelles in the cytoplasm including a membrane bound nucleus, and all other materials needed to sustain life. Scientist made a conclusion that stated that eukaryotes were formed 2 billion years after prokaryotes. Organelles in the eukaryotic cell help in metabolic functions and energy conversion. Eukaryotic cells include plant cells, which have a cell wall, large central vacuole, and chloroplasts.
6: Animal cells have a world full of differences between them and plant cells. They may both be cells, eukaryotic cells to be exact, but they have two different names for a reason. To start off, they have differing shapes. | Plant cells have a spherical shape while plant cells are rectangular. Animal cells consistently contain centrioles and plant cells contain that organelle sometimes. Animal cells do not have a cell wall or chloroplasts because they do not synthesize food. Also, the animal cell's vacuole isn't nearly as overwhelming in size as that of the plant cell. | CELLULAR
7: Animal and plant cells are all connected by the title "Eukaryotic Cell", but they have their fair share of differences. For instance, plant cells have a rigid cell wall and plasma membranes whereas animal cells simply have plasma membranes alone. Secondly, plant cells have chloroplasts because they need to be able to perform photosynthesis. | Next, plant cells have a large central vacuole that can take up 90% of the cell's space. Animal cells simply have small vacuoles. Lastly, plant cells occasionally have centrioles, but this is different in the plant cell.These two different cells are also very much in common in that they both contain organelles such as mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, nucleus and nucleolus. | WAR
8: The "brain" or control center of the cell. It contains DNA, which makes up genes. That DNA is then transcribed onto messenger RNA which carries a copy of the gene for protein production. These orders go to the protein factories. | Nucleoli are part of the nucleus and help in the transcribing process of genes for protein production. Wherever there is a nucleus, there is a nucleolus. | Chloroplasts are structures which allow plants to trap sunlight and carry out photosynthesis. These are only present in plant cells, because only plants undertake in photosynthesis.
9: The golgi apparatus works to put the finishing touches on the proteins made by the ribosomes. It acts like a post office, making sure the proteins are ready to be shipped into the body. This structure can be found in all eukaryotic cells. | These are structures that modify the proteins produced y the ribosomes. Only the proteins that need alterations are dealt with be the Endoplasmic Reticulum. This structure is present in both plant and animal cells. | The cell wall is the structure and support for the pant cell. It acts as a barrier to harmful pathogens and such, and it also plays a metabolic role. It prevents the cell membrane from bursting in a hyptonic medium, and also stores carbohydrates. This is only found in plant cells, and this gives it that rectangular shape.
10: This is the digestive 'plant' for lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins. Lysosomes also transport undigested material to the cell membrane for removal. | These are the protein centers of the cell. They follow instructions from RNA to make specific proteins. This structure can be found in eukaryotic cells. | The vacuole contains a water solution and membrane-bound sacs for storage, digestion, and waste removal. Some vacuoles are needed for water removal. | Chloroplasts are structures found in plant cells and contain chlorophyll, essential for photosynthesis.
11: While the plant cell has a rigid cell wall, an animal cell membrane is a flexible lipid bilayer. The basic building blocks of cell membranes are proteins and phospholipids. | The cell membrane is semi-permeable and only allows specific substance's to pass. Proteins float in the cell membrane and also allow for active transport. | Many organelles in the cell have a cell membrane because it is just that important, and some have two, such as the mitochondrion, with an inner and outer membrane. | Cell Membrane
12: Homeostasis refers to the tendency of a system, especially the physiological system of higher animals, to maintain internal stability, owing to the coordinated response of its parts to any situation that would tend to disturb its normal condition or function. Cells must maintain homeostasis in order to be able to reproduce and perform the bodily functions necessary to sustain life.