S: The Great Depression by: Rakiya C. Simmons
FC: The Great Depression | By Rakiya Simmons
1: Chapter 1: What Caused the Great Depression? | The Great Depression was mainly caused by high tariffs, war debts, overproduction in industry and agriculture, unequal distribution of wealth, and the stock market crash. Businesses were having trouble with staying competitive as well as profitable. The stock market crashed on October29, 1929. After the crash of the stock market, Americans began spending less and saving more. The increase in saving led to a decline in production and jobs, which caused more unemployment. The government attempted to pass a series of laws, but this did nothing but hurt the economy further. An example of this was the Smoot Hawley Tariff. It set a high tax on foreign goods and lowered trading between the US and other countries. Another cause of the Depression was the failure of banks. Banks were disappearing along with the money deposited in them. Citizens were losing their life savings because of the bank failures. The main cause of the bank failures was the McFadden Act of 1927. The act limited the size that a bank could grow by forcing them to stay within the state of their origin. Loans also added to the failure of banks. The average person was unable to pay off their debts so they borrowed more money from the banks. Another direct cause of the Great Depression was the panic of the American people. The people quickly pulled their money from the banks. The Great Depression was very devastating to America and lasted for 12 long years.
2: A lot of people also had to get food from breadlines and soup kitchens because they were unemployed and homeless. Others had to walk miles to see relatives. Many dust storms and droughts also occured. This added more strain to the poor conditions and the economy. The Depression was very detrimental to people's living conditions. | Chapter 2: What was life like during the Great Depression? | During the Great Depression, unemployment skyrocketed. Many employees tried to get as much work as possible from employees for low wages. Workers were not happy with the assembly lines, poor working conditions and the lack of job security. Hunger, poverty and unemployment was widespread. Many people were living in shacks. Many people began migrating and selling their farms.
3: A farmer and his son during a dust storm. | Mother & children at pea picker's camp. | Men looking for jobs at the American Legion Employment Bureau in Los Angeles.
4: Chapter 3: Who was affected by the Great Depression? | Depression refugees from Iowa. | People living in poverty and poor conditions.
5: The Great Depression affected most Americans. Daily life was a struggle. People who were unemployed could not pay their mortgage or buy food and clothes for their families. Both adults and children were badly affected. A lot of people were homeless and suffering from starvation. Homeowners lost their homes and farms and many people began to travel on highways and migrate. A great number of children were hungry and without proper clothing for weather conditions. Thousands of schools closed and 3 million children were left without school and work. All people of different races and income were affected. People who owned farms had to sell them because of the pea crop failure. Panic also spread through Europe in 1931. After the World Court refused to allow Austria to enter a customs union with Germany, Europe collapsed. US President Herbert Hoover proposed a moratorium on war debts and reparations, but the French opposed, which delayed its acceptance.
6: The Great Depression was the longest and deepest depression of the 20th century. Although it originated in the US, it quickly spread to almost every country in the world. Both rich and poor countries were badly affected. Some countries had unemployment rates as high as 33%. Many cities were affected and crop prices fell to almost 60%. Australia depended heavily on agricultural and industrial exports. Because of this, it was one of the severely hit countries in the West. Canada and Germany were also affected. Chile was affected by the Depression in 1930. GDP dropped 14%, mining income declined by 27%, and export earnings fell 28%.
7: France became affected by the Depression in 1931. Hardship and unemployment led to rioting. However, the conditions were not as bad as other nations. In Germany, unemployment soared in large cities and reached 30% in 1932. This was caused by America loaning Germany money to help rebuild their economy. | Latin American colonies were also severely damaged by the Depression. The US heavily invested in | Homeless family walking. | A squatter sitting near her shack.
8: in LatinAmerican colonies, which led to the downfall of Chile, Bolivia and Peru. In South Africa, agricultural and mineral exports fell drastically. Many people in South Africa lived as paupers. In the United Kingdom, the effects of the Depression were fast and devastating. The demand for British products fell and unemployment had reaching 2.5 million. Exports fell in value by 15%. Heavy industry declined and there was a series of hunger marches in Britain during 1920-1930.
9: The Depression particularly affected agricultural prices and primary products. Both experienced a drastic fall. Urban and international markets were lost, troubling farmers that were already suffering from debt caused by expanding production and agricultural machinery. By1935, 26.6% of wage earners were unemployed. The domestic market lost their lands because they couldn't keep up with the payments. Most factory workers had to work twice as hard to earn money.
10: The Great Depression led to the election of President Franklin D. Roosevelt over Herbert Hoover. To help turn the economy around, he proposed the "New Deal". Each program in the New Deal had its own success. The programs did many things to support American citizens. The New Deal helped regulate wages and prices, helping most families buy the necessities that they needed. Some programs helped employ people as artists, laborers, writers, and conservation workers. The Social Security Insurance Program helped support the elderly who could not work. The New Deal contributed to the alleviation of the Great Depression, but World War II played a major role in changing the economy. | In the late 1930s, the Great Depression began weakening but many Americans were still in poverty. Germany struck America's attention when their forces became powerful and took over neighboring countries. Germany invaded Poland and soon after, WWII erupted in Europe. Pearl Harbor was bombed on December 7, 1941, encouraging America to enter the war. The US enlisted more than 10 million men and women into the military. The people back home took up jobs working in factories to make supplies for the war. The need for soldiers, pilots, weaponry, ammunition workers, and air & sea craft helped contribute to the Depression's end. America's economy boosted during this time and finally began showing signs of improvement and restoration.
11: Franklin D. Roosevelt | Roadside stand | Books by Federal Writers