1: The Harlem Renaissance was a cultural movement during the 1920's and 1930's, known at the time as the "New Negro Movement." African Americans wanted to create a "New Negro," and did so through music, art, literature, drama, poetry, and thinking. This new "Black Identity" flourished throughout the city.
2: Du Bois
4: Marcus Garvey - Born in Jamaica - A printer's apprentice and then moved to London - Came to America in 1916
5: - Was once shot by the name of Tyler, who afterwards committed suicide -Convicted of mail Fraud and deported back to Jamaica - Died in 1940 due to many strokes, and was buried back in Jamaica and placed in shrine at the National Heroes Park - He was married twice: once to Amy Ashwood, with whom he had two children and then Amy Jacques Accomplishments - Went on a 38-state speaking tour - Spoke at Madison Square Garden to 25,000 people
6: Works and Contributions Founded the UNIA (Universal Negro Improvement Association): 1. Promoted the resettlement of African-Americans in Africa 2. Based in Harlem and Jamaica 3. Sent 4 million back to Africa Black Star Line: 1. A shipping line that established trade between Africans in America, the Caribbean, Canada and Africa Negroes Factories Association: 1. Companies that manufactured marketable commodities for and by African-Americans
7: The Greater Liberia Act: 1. Deported 12 million blacks back to Liberia Philosophy Pan-African: mass movement and economic empowerment *Became the first man to develop a mass black movement * Was Jamaica's first national hero * Was a great influence on the Civil Rights Movement's leaders such as MLK, Malcolm X etc.
8: Harrison | Hubert Harrison, a West Indian-American born in 1883, was a man of intellectual greatness. Hubert was a talented writer, orator, educator and critic. He became such an outspoken speaker that he became known as the father of Harlem radicalism. Being an atheist, Hubert had many beliefs that he stood for, and he spread his thoughts by encouraging a large amount of the population.
9: - Harrison underwent a deconversion from Christianity to becoming an agnostic atheist. According to Hubert, there were passages that justified slavery and he believed that the only blacks in Christianity were the devil and his demons, he said that Jesus, God, and his angels were white. Harrison said blacks who believed in the bible must be insane. | - As a child, Harrison became racially conscious. He saw the poverty that he and the majority of African Americans around him lived in. In his teenage years Harrison could only work for low paying wages, but he went to high school in the night time, and spent his studies practicing his speech skill, which he knew he could succeed with seeing as he was always known as a smart intellectual. | - Harrison worked as a writer for the New York Times, and his topics were lynching, Charles Darwin's theory of Evolution, and other racial problems. In 1910, Harrison wrote two letters that negatively criticized Booker T. Washington, and Hubert was fired.
10: - After being fired from New York Times, Harrison joined the Socialist Party of America. He became America's most renowned African American socialist and carried the idea that it is the duty of Socialists to help African Americans like they helped women and foreigners. He wanted the Socialists to make special efforts in order to help African Americans and preached that a true democracy would only happen when the blacks are treated fairly. He said the Negro is the start to a revolution.
11: - Though, Harrison made many efforts to convince the Socialists Party of America, they still allowed segregated locals in the South and racist positions on Asian immigration. In 1914 Harrison left the Socialist Party and joined Garvey's UNIA movement. For eight months Harrison helped the UNIA rise to become the leading radical racial movement at the time. Harrison soon began to disagree with the thoughts of Garvey, and felt that the issues involving African Americans were in America, while Garvey focused on Africa. | - Harrison left the UNIA in the 1920s, and in his later years continued to lecture and write about the inequality with African Americans. With his radical thinking and expressions, Harrison died in 1927 being one of the most influential, radical African Americans in history.
12: Mary White Ovington | Mary White Ovington was born on April 11, 1865 in Brooklyn, New York. She attended Packer Collegiate Institute and Radcliffe College. | Both her parents were members of the Unitarian Church and supported womens rights and anti-slavery.This influenced her beliefs along with hearing a civil rights speech by Frederick Douglass in 1890.
13: She helped found the Greenpoint Settlement in Brooklyn and was named head of the program in 1896. Around this time, she met W.E.B. Du Bois, and she was introduced to the founding members of the Niagara Movement. | In 1905, she joined the Socialist Party where she argued racial issues and wrote news papers and journals entries. | After reading an article describing a violent attack on black residents in Springfield, Illinois, a call was issued for national conference on the civil and political rights of African Americans. The call led to a the formation of the NAACP. Ovington was appointed as its executive secretary.
14: Ovington attended the Universal Races Congress where she stayed active in the fight for womens rights. Also, she remained a pacifist for World War I. After the war, she fought hard against segregation and public racial discrimination in in the NAACP. | She won three important judgments when she appealed to the Supreme Court for southern laws deemed unconstitutional. These laws concerned racial discrimination in voting and housing.
15: She went on to write newspaper articles and books. Mary White Ovington retired from the NAACP in 1947and died July 15, 1951. | She impacted American culture by helping womens ability to vote, fighting racial discrimination, co-founding the NAACP, and aiding the desegregation of schools.
16: Shortly after graduating, White became the secretary of the Atlanta chapter of the NAACP. He was motivated to do this work after barely escaping a race riot a few years earlier. His main task was to oversee plans of the fight against public segregation. White was also a Civil Rights Activist his whole life. | Walter White was born July 1st, 1893 in Atlanta, Georgia. He attended African American schools even though he had blond hair and blue eyes; he was only part black. He graduated from Atlanta University and was known throughout his life as a novelist, journalist, and essayist.
17: While at the NAACP, White tried to have an anti-lynching law passed and eventually his work led to the decline of lynchings during the 30's. He also pressured President Roosevelt to create the Fair Employment Practices Act, banning discrimination in government and war industries, which is still in use today. Walter White promoted racial pride and political and social equality during the Harlem Renaissance. | While working for the NAACP, White mostly investigated lynchings. HIs appearance helped him gather names and information of people who participated in lynchings; which he then published in a book. About 10 years after he started at the NAACP, he was named chief executive and he remained in that spot for 24 years.