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Harry S Truman

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2: Born For Greatness? Truman's Early Life By Emily Mitchell Harry S. Truman was born in 1884. After graduating from high school in 1901, Truman started out as an employee of the Santa Fe Railroad from 1902-1903. He switched occupations and worked as a bank clerk in Kansas City from 1903-1905, until he joined the National Guard. During his service six years of service in the National Guard, he worked in Kansas City as a bank bookkeeper from 1905-1906. | This may have developed the organization skills used later in his life. Besides his leadership qualities, Truman was also elected because he served in WWI during 1917-1919. During his service in WWI, Truman most likely learned lessons in sacrifice and loyalty that were essential to the success of his presidency. To further his popularity, he was promoted to captain in 1918. Another important aspect of Truman was his knowledge of common people. Since he had worked on his family's farm from 1906-1917, he understood the common person's troubles and desires.

4: Road to the Presidency By Amy Alter Harry S. Truman did many things as a leader in order to build success to become President. On June 28th, 1919, he married a woman named Elizabeth Bess Virginia Wallace. Four years later, he attended the Kansas City School of Law until 1925. Here, he was the Eastern District Judge of Jackson County, Missouri Court. On February 17th, | 1924, his daughter, Mary Margaret, was born. Throughout the years of 1927 to 1935, he was the presiding Judge of the Jackson County Missouri Court. In 1928, Harry lead a very successful campaign, which resulted in approval of $6.5 million of a bond issue for the construction of 224 miles of paved highways in the county, as well as additional funds for building a hospital. Truman was later promoted to the colonel position in the Field Artillery Reserve in 1932.

5: He defeated Roscoe C. Patterson in 1934 to become a member of the Senate. Also, he was a Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Missouri and the Masonic Order during 1940. In that same year on September 18th, the Wheeler-Truman Act was signed by President Roosevelt, which put guidelines in place for methods of business in the transportation industries. He also served as Chairman of the Senate Special Committee from 1941 to 1944, with the intention to investigate the | National Defense Program. During 1935 until 1945, he was a United States Senator from Missouri. On July 21st, 1944, Harry was at a Democratic National Convention in Chicago, where he was nominated for the vice-presidency. From January through April 1945, he was the Vice-President of our country. Harry Truman provided the United States with a great amount of leadership, before he even became President.

6: Problems At Home By Garrett Blauch During his almost eight years in office, President Harry S. Truman not only faced the many problems overseas during World War II, but those problems right here at home. He was viewed as a savior to the American people when Franklin Delano Roosevelt died, and did a very satisfactory job in keeping America going in post-war times. He had to deal with the Second Red Scare during the Cold War, a few | civil rights issues, and the problems of poverty, segregation, and financial aid that faced Americans everyday. After the hot war (WWII) ended, the Cold War began, and America faced a serious new Red Scare. This time though, President Truman created the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) to investigate suspected Reds, especially in the federal government, that showed signs of disloyalty and harmful foreign influence.

7: Some victims of these investigations were Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, who were put on trial for spying for the USSR. To go along with the loyalty investigations, Truman passed the National Security Act of 1947 in order to unify the armed forces into one department, establish the CIA and the National Security Council to ensure that no communists would influence the American beliefs. Even though the war in Europe had ended, the | cost of the war afterwards was much higher than expected. In order to help some allies in Europe, Truman signed the Foreign Assistance Act of 1948. With this, the European Recovery Program (ERP) was created to put the Marshall Plan into effect. This plan would send financial aid to countries in Europe who needed it. The Economic Cooperation Administration also helped to implement the plan. Another major domestic event in Truman's presidency was Executive

8: Order 9981, which more simply stated was the desegregation of the military. By doing so, Truman helped the efforts of many soon-to-be civil rights actions taken by African Americans. When President Truman came into the presidency of the United States, he came into a lifelong struggle for equal rights of all Americans. He even sent out a civil rights message to Congress, asking for civil rights legislation to secure the rights of the country's | minority groups. Many programs presented to Congress by multiple presidents would not come into effect until later in the Johnson administration however. As well as the civil rights programs, Truman came up with his famed "Fair Deal," which was his domestic plan of action. The Fair Deal was an extension of FDR's New Deal, but this time included a higher minimum wage, full employment or no poverty, a national health insurance plan, government housing,

9: Social Security benefits, and aid for farmers. The Fair Deal was viewed as a great idea for America, but like I said, many actions would not be taken until the Johnson administration. Congress rejected all of the Civil Rights laws, federal aid to education, and the highly anticipated national health insurance plan. Congress was not alone in rejected proposed bills though, as Truman had his fair share of vetoes during his presidency. One of the more | prominent vetoes was that of the Taft-Harley Bill of 1947, which would later be overturned by Congress with a majority vote. The law gave the federal government greater authority to end strikes and required union leaders to take an oath that they were not Communists. But Truman vetoed the bill on the grounds that it was discriminatory against labor. Truman also came close to vetoing the Displaced Persons Act of 1948, which would have allowed many World War II displaced persons to

10: relocate into the U.S. if it was their preference. He was not pleased with the provisions, saying "It is a close question whether this bill is better or worse than no bill at all." With all of President Truman's wins and losses among the American public, he still managed to try again for his first real presidential nomination. President Harry S. Truman received his first presidential nomination for First Ballot at the Democratic National Convention in | Philadelphia. This was for the 1948 election against the Republican candidate Thomas E. Dewey. Truman then began his "Whistlestop" campaign, which would later become a popular technique for future candidates. This involved a 22,000 mile trip throughout the country via the railroad system. This trek was unprecedented and gave Truman much more popularity. He gave 275 speeches from the caboose of his train, the Ferdinand Magellan. This tactic must have worked well for he won the

11: election in a questionable result. There is a famous picture of Truman holding a Chicago Tribune issue with the headline "DEWEY DEFEATS TRUMAN." This election was one of the closest in America's history and shows how strong of a president Truman was. In January of 1949, Truman was inaugurated for his full first term, but otherwise considered his second term. As you can see, President Truman was a very influential leader | during his time in office. He handled many civil rights problems, passed and vetoed many bills, and introduced his Fair Deal to the country. The way he handled the situation at home here in America pleased our citizens so much that they even elected him in the close race of the 1948 election. He also took care of the new Red Scare and other financial problems in the country. This truly proves that Harry S. Truman was exactly what America needed in post-WWII times.

12: Handling a Country: Domestic Issues of the U.S. (1949-1953) By Lauren Ratkiewicz On January 20, 1949, Harry S. Truman was inaugurated for a second term as President of the United States, with plans of new programs to aid in the improvement of America, as a country. Within the next four years of his presidency, he would make decisions that would do just that, but he also would agree to some points that would cause | controversy and questions in the homes of Americans. His first domestic act following his re-election occurred on August 10, 1949. Truman signed the National Security Act Amendment, which called for a more unified Department of Defense for Americans. This allowed citizens of the U.S. to feel safer at home, especially since the start of the Cold War threatened that security. Truman’s next domestic plan consisted of his reveal of his plans for the

13: development of the hydrogen bomb to the Atomic Energy Commission on January 31, 1950. This new weapon was far more powerful than the atomic bomb, and Truman intended to have this bomb as a way to be one step ahead of all other nations militarily. On August 25, 1950, Harry Truman ordered seizure of the railroads by the government. He did not want America to undergo a nationwide strike of railroad workers, and saw this as a successful | solution. Less than three months later, the President narrowly escapes an assassination attempt on November 1, 1950. Two Puerto Rican nationalists attempted to shoot their way into Blair House, his home in Washington D.C. However, luckily, Truman avoided his premature death. December 6, 1950 was the date in which the “Paul Hume incident” occurred. After a music critic, by the name of Paul Hume, gave Truman’s daughter, Margaret, a negative

14: review on her musical recital, the president sent him personal letter assailing his opinions. Because of this, many can assume that Harry Truman was a hands-on, protective man, when it came to his children. Almost two years later, April 8, 1952, President Truman signed an executive order that directed the Secretary of Commerce, Charles Sawyer, to seize steel mills. Similar to what happened in August of 1950, Truman hoped to avoid the strike of steel | mill workers. In contrast to August of 1950, however, that order was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court on June 2 of 1952. On June 25, 1952, Truman vetoed the Immigration and Nationality Act, (also known as McCarran-Walter Act), over his concerns about discriminatory quota laws and the infringement over American ideals of freedom and opportunity. However, on June 27, Congress ended up overriding the president’s

15: veto and making this act a reality. Truman’s final domestic act as President occurred on November 18, 1952. It was simply a meeting with America’s next president, Dwight D. Eisenhower, to discuss problems of transition from one president to the next. Harry Truman’s domestic role as President of the U.S. from 1949 to 1952 consisted of both successful acts, such as the National Security Act Amendment, and of controversial acts, such as the “Paul Hume incident.” | This role ended in January 1953, when Truman stepped down, handing the position over to Eisenhower.

16: Trying to Find Peace in a World in Pieces By Julie Frank When Harry S Truman took over the U.S. presidency after President Franklin Delano Roosevelt died on April 12, 1945, he had some important decisions to make concerning the end of World War II. When Truman became President, the war in Europe was already over, but the war in Japan had yet to end. | While considering what course of action to take concerning Japan, Truman began working towards permanent peace with post-World War II Europe in 1945. On May 2nd, he chose Justice Robert Jackson to be the U.S. Chief of Counsel in the Nazi war trials. These war trials would bring Nazis to justice for their criminal actions in World War II. On June 14th, Truman signed a peace treaty ratification with the countries of Italy, Romania, Hungary, and Bulgaria. On June 26th,

17: he gave the closing address at the U.N. Charter Conference in San Francisco. From July 17th until August 2nd, Truman attended the Potsdam Conference to discuss the future of Germany with Josef Stalin of the U.S.S.R. and Winston Churchill of Great Britain. At this conference in Potsdam, Germany, these three leaders agreed upon a division of Germany into four pieces. The United States, Great Britain, France, and the Soviet Union would each control a zone. Since the former | capital of Germany, Berlin, was located in the Soviet Union’s sector, the city would be divided into four sections, and each of the four countries would control a section. President Truman had an important decision to make regarding the war in the Pacific. If they chose to invade Japan by land, they would need to send about two million U.S. soldiers, with an estimated one million expected to die. When Truman became president, he was informed that since 1942,

18: Allied scientists had been working to build an atomic bomb as an alternative to a land invasion on Japan. This atomic bomb research project was known as the Manhattan Project, and it produced three atomic bombs. The first bomb was tested in a desert near Alamogordo, New Mexico and turned the sand to glass. President Truman had to weigh the options of dropping the bombs. If he chose to drop the bombs, many American soldiers’ lives would be saved, but many Japanese civilians | would die. However, if they chose a land invasion, the estimated one million U.S. soldiers would die, as well as countless Japanese soldiers and civilians. There were also additional reasons for dropping the bombs besides ending the war as quickly and painlessly as possible, such as showing the Soviet Union our military might, justifying the cost of the bomb, and avenging Pearl Harbor. He decided that the benefits of dropping the bomb outweighed the negatives. On August 6, 1945, President Truman began closing in on the end of World War II in Japan with his announcement of the dropping of the first atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan. Between 70,000 and 80,000 people were killed in the initial blast of this bomb, and thousands of others died later from burns and radiation. Because Japan did not surrender after this first bombing, a second atomic bomb was dropped on the Japanese city of Nagasaki on August 9th. Because the people of Nagasaki were protected by the mountains, half as many, 40,000 people, died from the initial blast as at Hiroshima, but this number was still a horribly high number of deaths. Five days after the dropping of the bomb on Nagasaki, on August 14, 1945, Japan surrendered, officially ending the U.S. war with Japan. August 15, 1945 became known as V-J Day, or Victory in Japan Day. With Japan’s surrender, President Truman continued his work towards peace in 1946. On July 15th, he approved a $3.75 billion loan to Great Britain to help them recover from the war. On December 31st, Truman officially ended World War II by signing a declaration announcing the end of hostilities concerned with the war. In his first two years as President of the United States, Harry S Truman made some important decisions concerning future world peace. His

19: On August 6, 1945, President Truman began closing in on the end of World War II in Japan with his announcement of the dropping of the first atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan. Between 70,000 and 80,000 people were killed in the initial blast of this bomb, and thousands of others died later from burns and radiation. Because Japan did not surrender after this first bombing, a second atomic bomb was dropped on the Japanese city of Nagasaki on August 9th. Because the people of Nagasaki | were protected by the mountains, half as many, 40,000 people, died from the initial blast as at Hiroshima, but this number was still a horribly high number of deaths. Five days after the dropping of the bomb on Nagasaki, on August 14, 1945, Japan surrendered, officially ending the U.S. war with Japan. August 15, 1945 became known as V-J Day, or Victory in Japan Day. With Japan’s surrender, President Truman continued his work

20: towards peace in 1946. On July 15th, he approved a $3.75 billion loan to Great Britain to help them recover from the war. On December 31st, Truman officially ended World War II by signing a declaration announcing the end of hostilities concerned with the war. In his first two years as President of the United States, Harry S Truman made some important decisions concerning future world peace. His decisions concerning the dropping of the atomic | bomb on Japan, and his actions regarding peace with Europe were crucial judgments that Truman had to make while working towards post-World War II peace.

21: 1948-1952: Escalation of the Cold War By Sean Caulfield The escalation of the Cold War starts after World War II ends and when the Marshall plan takes effect. U.S. interests after World War II is to offer help to our allies with the Marshall plan offering aid to European countries. The Displaced Persons Act helped displaced people and orphans as result of this war to enter the country. Around | this time President Truman recognized the state of Israel. A day after the Displaced Person Act was signed; President Truman ordered the beginning of the Berlin Airlift which would last for eleven months. The Berlin Airlift aided West Berliners since the communist part of the country they were in shut off all power and resources to them. This only made tensions higher between the U.S. and the Soviet Union since they controlled the communist part of Germany that the U.S. was flying supplies to.

22: As tensions remained high between these two countries, the North Atlantic Pact (or NATO) was signed by the U.S. and eleven other countries at the time. They agreed to help each other if one is attacked and this was seen as a way to tell the communist Soviet Union that the U.S. gave its back to other free countries. This was only one way that the U.S. tried to show off its power and dominance in the world. Another way was to show off the powerful weaponry available to the U.S. and this is linked to President Truman telling the Atomic Energy Commission | in 1950 that a hydrogen bomb was being built. As this is going on, tensions between the communists and free world was still going on strong and battle broke out in Korea where the communist North Korea began attacking the democratic South Korea. With Truman’s policy of containment (if a country is attacked by communists, the U.S. will be there to help) at risk, he ordered troops and money to South Korea to help the South Koreans. This war would last until 1953 with another president bringing the troops home but not the end

23: of the tension between the battles of communism vs. democracy, the Soviet Union vs. the U.S.A.

24: The Life of Harry Truman After Presidency By Sean Forsyth January 1973 Everybody remembers the years when Harry Truman was president. Magnificent years they were. However do you know anything about his life since presidency? From reading this you are going to find out how busy he really has been. Just because he left office does not mean he slowed down at all, even after entering his old age. | As you all know, Truman left the white house and his presidency in 1953 after completing his term in office. As it would turn out 1953 was a pretty good year for Mr. Truman. In this year Mr. Truman began working on his highly successful first memoir entitled “Year of Decisions.” The memoir was published later that year and became an instant best seller. As luck would have it, he would later publish his second memoir “Years of Trial and Hope.” With the success of his

25: memoir, Truman moved on to bigger and better things that year. On January 20th, 1953 he attended the inauguration of his friend Dwight D. Eisenhower. The year started off well however soon he landed in deep scandal. It was uncovered by investigations that during his presidency he appointed an alleged communist to the International Monetary Fund. Truman spent all of November 16 addressing the public on this and the scandal later died off. On May 8th, 1955, one | year after his second memoir became a hit, he celebrated his seventy first birthday. However Truman got an unusually special present that year. On his birthday he broke ground for his own presidential library. He described this as being “the greatest honor of his life.” Some of the busiest years of his post-presidency were definitely 1956, 1957, and 1959. To start off the year in 1956 he attends the wedding of his daughter Mary Margaret. Mary is wed to a well known newspaper writer

26: E. Clifton Daniel Jr. Two weeks later Truman and his wife tour Europe and meet with various government leaders. And who would have known he would have time for a degree with his busy schedule but low and behold on June 20, 1956 he received an honorary degree from Oxford University. 1957 starts out with a bang when Truman is interviewed by CBS for a special called “See it Now!” America had to wait to watch him though since it took a whole year before | it aired on television. On July 6th Truman is honored with the dedication of his national library when it becomes part of the National Archives and Records Service. His library was only the second to receive this honor. To finish of the year Truman’s first grandchild is born. Apparently the president needed a vacation because he stayed under the radar for 1958 until he popped back up on September 3, 1959. On this day Truman was honored to host comedian

27: Jack Benny on the Benny TV program. The episode is aired a month later and filmed in the Truman Library. In 1960 he pops up once again to write his book “Mr. Citizen.” In he book Truman talks about his post presidential experiences, somewhat like I am doing right now. Not only does he publish a book he also spends a large chunk of time campaigning for one of the most beloved presidents ever Mr. John. F. Kennedy himself. Kennedy must have rewarded his friend for his | great work campaigning for him. Because on January 20th, 1961 Truman, his wife, and daughter visit the white house for the first time in eight years. Later in the year Truman makes his leap into television when he signs a contract for twenty six television episodes based on his time in office. To end the year in November, Truman’s friend Eisenhower pays him a visit at the Harry S. Truman nation library. Two years later a statue of Truman is unveiled in

28: Athens, Greece. Truman is named as one of Greece’s “greatest benefactors.” May 8th, 1964 Truman is honored on his eightieth birthday to be the first president to address congress while its in session and while he is not in office. July 30 of the next year will be one day that Truman will never forget. On that day President Lyndon B. Johnson signs the Medicare Bill at the Truman library. Later the next year Truman and his wife receive the very first | Medicare accounts, account one and two. He later describes this event as “a profound personal experience for me.” Shortly after receiving the first two Medicare accounts Truman honors the world again. On January 20th, 1966 Truman announces the construction of the Harry S. Truman Center for The Advancement of Peace in Jerusalem. Although this experience great honor Truman, nothing honored him more than two years later on October 12, 1968. On that day President

29: Johnson signs a bill in Truman’s house making October 24th as U.N. Day. Johnson also signs a declaration acknowledging Truman’s part in establishing the U.N. Sadly on December 6, 1972, just four years after the U.N. bill, Truman dies in his home at the age of 88. Truman’s body is interred two days later at his National Library. Although Truman lead this great country in a great way, his years after presidency definitely were equally as great!

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