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history of the 1800s

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BC: Works Cited Whitley, Peggy. "19th Century Cultural Library." Kingwood College Library. Jun 2008. Web. 21 Apr 2010. kclibrary.lonestar.edu Sandeen, Del. "Fashion Timeline of Men's Clothing." love to know. 26 Jan 2009. Web. 25 Apr 2010. mens-fashion.lovetoknow.com Appleby, Joyce; Brinkley, Alan; Broussard, Albert; McPherson, James; Ritchie, Donald; The National Geographic Society. "Creating a Nation." The American Republic To 1877. Columbus, Ohio: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2005 "Quotes About the Past." Famous Inspirational Quotes. 2010. Web. 28 Apr 2010.

FC: Building a Nation America in the Early 1800's

1: America was built on the beliefs and ideas of its first immigrants who would later call this land home. They shaped our country and how it would not only survive but thrive for years to come. Their story is recorded and shared through our country's history. Their story is our story.

2: The first census of the United States was taken in 1790. The findings resulted in a population of almost four million people, and the number would continue to quickly grow. Most of these people lived east of the Appalachian Mountains, but that all changed just decades later when numerous settlers gathered their belongings and headed west. | Ideas | The First Census

3: The National Road | Ideas | When Ohio became a state in 1803, it asked the federal government to be connected to the East. This led to the building of the National road. Congress approved funds for the road and construction started in 1811 when a route was agreed on. The 780 mile road started in Cumberland, Maryland. Because of the War of 1812, work on the road stopped with the road completed through western Virginia. This section didn't open until 1818. The road continued through Ohio and was finished ending in Vandalia, Illinois in 1850. The National Road stimulated trade and helped to connect the young America. It also stimulated settlement providing a passage to the west to settlers.

4: Robert Fulton developed the first effective steam engine. Compared to previous engines, his was more powerful and made the ride much smoother. In 1807, Fulton's steamboat the Clermont, took a trial run with his new engine. It traveled 150 miles from New York to Albany in an incredible 32 hours. It was a great success. | Steamboats started a new era in river travel. They improved the transport of goods and people by making it much faster and cheaper. They also contributed to the growth of cities along rivers. | Technology

5: As convenient as steamboats were, they were dependent on the existing river system. People wanted to connect New York to the Great Lakes. The Erie Canal was constructed across New York connecting Albany on the Hudson River to Buffalo on Lake Erie. The 363 mile long canal consisted of a series of locks where water levels were raised or lowered to enable travel. Thousands of people worked on the canal for almost two years before it opened on October 26, 1825, joining the Midwest to the East. For the first few years, steamboats weren't allowed because they could damage the canal's embankments. Instead, horses or donkeys pulled the boats through. The success of this canal lead to a canal boom throughout the country. | Ideas

6: The spinning jenny and power loom both helped to save time and money in the process of making cloth. The spinning jenny was a machine that spun thread, and the power loom wove the thread into cloth. These new machines both depended on water power to run so the mills where these were used were built near rivers. | Power Loom | Spinning Jenny | Technology

7: In 1793, Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin. It was a machine that could quickly and efficiently remove seeds from cotton fiber. This invention also helped to speed up the textile-making process. He also started the use of interchangable parts, parts that were identical and could be put together to make a product. The introduction of interchangable parts led to the mass production of goods. | Eli Whitney | Cotton Gin

8: Men's Clothing Men's fashion greatly changed from the 18th to 19th centuries. Popular items of clothing included long trousers, top hats, vests, over coats, and frock coats. Compared to the 18th century, men's clothes were more fitted to their body, and mass-production now allowed for men to have more than only a couple outfits. | Women's Clothing Women typically wore long, flowing skirts, blouses, and hats and shawls (to stay warm but they were also in fashion). Women's shoes were made to fit either foot. They were not made for comfort. For pictures, people dressed up in their best clothing as can be seen in the family picture to the left.

9: Most of the music people listened to was religious, such as Amazing Grace, or a reflection of European music, such as Greensleeves. People enjoyed going to the theater. Shakespeare's plays were some of the most popular to go see. Popular social activities included dancing, playing games like checkers or chess, horse racing, | cock fighting, barn raising, and husking bees. | Just For Fun | Culture

10: Joseph Smith founded the Mormon church in 1830 in the state of New York. His visions led him to create a new Christian church in the hopes of building an ideal society. He believed in polygamy and that property should be shared. The practice of polygamy was eventually dropped because it angered many people. People disapproved of his religion and the Mormons were forced out of New York. Smith was killed by a mob in 1844 in Illinois. | Cultural | Joseph Smith, founder of the Mormon church

11: Tariff Disagreement $ In 1828, Congress passed a high tariff on goods manufactured in Europe. A tariff was a fee paid by merchants who imported goods. Northeast manufacturers weren't bothered by the tariff. Their reasoning was because European products were more expensive, people would buy American-made goods. Southerners despised the tariff. They argued that it meant higher prices on the American goods, too. Some Southerners even wanted the Southern states to secede and form their own government. Eventually, the tariff was lowered and the South agreed to it, but not without a fight. | Economic

12: Manifest Destiny In the 1800's, many people believed that their country's mission was to expand and spread their freedom all the way to the Pacific Ocean. In other words, people believed that America was destined to extend across the continent. In 1819, John Quincy Adams even expressed this thought saying expansion to the Pacific Ocean was as inevitable "as that the Mississippi should flow to the sea." | Ideas

13: tariffs, he enforced the Indian Removal Act, and fought with the Bank of the United States. Some people even blame him for the cause of the Panic of 1837. He decided not to run for a third term and the presidency was passed down to Martin Van Buren. | President Andrew Jackson was elected in 1828. He served two terms and did a lot in America in that time including preventing the South from seceding due to | Political

14: Trail of Tears In 1835 the American government convinced a Cherokee leader to sign a treaty giving their land to America. Most of the | Cherokee nation refused to obey the treaty. President Jackson sent troops to remove the natives. Thousands of Cherokees died on the long march west to what is now Oklahoma due to awful weather conditions, starvation, and exhaustion. | Social

15: The government negotiated treaties with Native Americans and most accepted payment for their land. They were relocated further west in what is now Oklahoma. | The Indian Removal Act was passed by Congress under President Jackson in 1830. It allowed the government to pay the Natives to move west.

16: Panic of 1837 The Panic of 1837 began shortly after Van Buren became president. During this time, land values dropped, investments declined, thousands of businesses closed, many people lost their jobs, and banks failed. He believed in and used the principal of laissez-faire to straighten out the country's economy. He also created a new treasury system for the government money. | Political cartoon criticizing President Van Buren | Economic

17: President Martin Van Buren was inaugurated in 1837 succeeding President Jackson. Not long after, the country was hit by and economic depression. He believed in laissez-faire, the principal the government should interfere as little as possible with the economy of the nation. He established an independent federal treasury were the government would store its money instead of in private banks. His new system would help guard the country against more bank crises. | Political

18: war against Mexico and gaining its territories of California and New Mexico and the Gadsen | Purchase. He only served one term, but played a huge role in shaping the size of our country. | James Polk became president in 1845. During his presidency, he succeeded in winning the | Political

19: for two more years. Not all Americans supported the war because they thought it aggressive and the point was to spread slavery. Despite those thoughts, the United States' win allowed for even more growth. | War Against Mexico After trying to buy both California and New Mexico from Mexico with Mexico's refusal, President Polk was still determined to get that land. Congress declared war on Mexico in 1846 and the fighting continued | S o c i a l

20: The Gadsen Purchase In 1853, after theTreaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo had been signed ending the war between Mexico and the United States, the United States paid Mexico $10 million for the Gadsen Purchase, land along the bottom of what is now Arizona and New Mexico. The U.S. had previously purchased the Louisiana Territory from the French, won Texas from Mexico, and was given the Mexican provinces of California and New Mexico. Considering that many people were already living in the northwest territories, the continental United States had reached it's full size. | Louisiana Purchase | Gadsen Purchase | Natural

21: Mountain Men and the Fur Trade Mountain men were men who lived in the Rocky Mountains and made their living in the fur trade trapping mostly beaver. Many of them had adopted Native American ways and had Native wives. Mountain men needed to be resourceful and skillful to survive in the wilderness. They prided themselves in being able to withstand the danger of the mountains. After a while, the men killed off most of the beaver so they could no longer trap. Some went and settled in Oregon, and others were guides to the settlers headed west. | Natural

22: The Oregon Trail The Oregon Trail was the most functional route to the West until about 1869 when the transcontinental railroad was built. The 2,000 mile road started in Independence, Missouri and ended in the Oregon Country. The trip usually lasted about five to six months so pioneers had to start their trip in the spring so they could complete it before winter set in.

23: Many people set out for Oregon Country in search of farmland. Others were on their way to California in search of gold. They traveled in large groups which consisted usually of related families. They traveled in covered wagons called prairie schooners because from a distance they looked like schooners, or boats. The Trail wasn't easy. Pioneers feared Indian attacks, though they rarely happened. Many Native Americans served as guides for the pioneers. Dangers on the trail included disease, starvation, exhaustion, | and accidents. About one in ten pioneers perished on the long journey. Pioneers traveled through the Great Plains, rivers such as the Platte, and the South Pass of the Rocky Mountains. | Natural

24: On January 24, 1848, James Marshall found gold while working under John Sutter in California. The news was soon spread and people flocked to California in the hopes of striking it rich. In 1849 alone, more than 80,000 people came to California in search of gold. These people were called forty-niners. People came from all over the world- America, Mexico, South America, Europe, Australia, and Asia. Most of the miners were inexperienced, but the gold found in California more than doubled the world's supply. | Natural

25: Because of the search for gold, some of California's land was left wrecked from the miners rummaging through hillsides with pickaxes and shovels.

26: Thinking Like A Historian How did events affect people's lives, community, and the world? With the constantly improving technology, new sources of transportation, and ever-changing country size, the Americans lives were greatly affected and usually for the better. They could perform certain tasks easier and quicker, travel faster, and head out west to start a new life. There was so much opportunity waiting for them. Not only Americans were affected, but the world too. Land was taken from other countries and the Native Americans to become part of the great nation we call home. New inventions were shared with other countries and trade was on-going. What has changed? A lot changed in America in the 1800's. There were lots of new inventions (ex. steam engine), ideas (ex. Manifest Destiny), and changes. New land was a big change-gaining territories like Texas and California which would eventually become states. People started moving west and started new communities and lives. Even styles of clothing differed from that of the previous century.

27: How did decisions or actions significantly transform people's lives? For one example, Native Americans' lives were greatly changed due to the Indian Removal Act. They were forced out of their already dwindling homeland by Andrew Jackson and the army to an area that is now Oklahoma- a land not many Americans wanted to live in. There were disagreements between the Natives and the federal government and people ended up dying. Native lives were changed when they had to leave for a new land and try to rebuild their broken communities, spirits, and homes. How did people in the past view their world? Native people probably saw it as somewhat the destruction of their lives and culture due to the fact that the white people now outnumbered and had control over them. Americans probably saw it as a time of great growth and expansion, a time of endless opportunities because their world was ever-changing with all the new land and technologies.

28: How is the past similar to the present? Just like the Mexican War, there are still wars being fought today over rights to land, an example being different religious groups fighting over Israel. There will always be the dislike of someone or people different than you because it's a human characteristic, like with President Jackson and the American Indians. There were many new inventions in the 1800's similar to today where it seems new inventions or gadgets are constantly being marketed.

29: "The past is our definition. We may strive, with good reason, to escape it, or to escape what is bad in it, but we will escape it only by adding something better to it." -Wendell Berry

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