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History Scrapbook

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BC: The End

FC: 14th-18th Century | Taylor Devins Mr. Somerfield CHY4U0

1: The Renaissance was a cultural and academic movement which stressed the rediscovery and submission of texts and thought from classical ancient times, occurring in Europe from the 14th century to the 17th. The Renaissance can also be referred to as the period of European history, both generally around the same dates. | The Renaissance

2: TABLE OF CONTENTS | 1......................................................................................Printing Press 2.............................................................Humanism/Christian Humanism 3........................................................................................John Wycliffe 4..............................................................................................John Hus 5........................................................................................Martin Luther 6.......................................................................................Johann Tetzel 7...........................................................................................John Calvin 8.................................................................................................Jesuits 9....................................................................................Council of Trent 10............................................................................Henry the Navigator 11.........................................................................Christopher Columbus 12.......................................................................................Prester John 13................................................................................ Thirty years War 14................................................................................English Civil Wars 15..........................................................................................Absolutism 16............................................................................................Louis XIV

3: Printing Press | The printing press was invented by Johannes Gutenberg somewhere in the mid 15th century. The Gutenberg press decreased the price of printed materials and made these materials accessible for the masses. Although he began in 1436, it wasn't until 1440 that Gutenberg fully created his printing press. Before the printing press, multiple copies of manuscripts had to be hand made, a stressful task that could take years. The Gutenberg Bible, the oldest surviving bible printed and the first mass produced book printed with a movable type printing press, which started the "Gutenberg Revolution" and the age of the printed book.

4: Humanism | RENAISSANCE | Humanism, derived from the Latin term Humanitas meaning “good human”, is a philosophy of human beings that involve their nature, development and in making life better outside of the church. It was an activity that stressed living as a responsible citizen, the importance of education and value of directing children in early childhood stages. It was an activity of cultural and educational reform, occupied by authors, scholars and civic leaders. It developed during the 14th century and on and off in the 15th. | Sir Thomas More 1478-1535 Humanist In Offfice: 1529-1532

5: Christian Humanism | Christian humanism became more popular during the Renaissance era. The only difference is that Christian humanism believes in the exact same thing as regular humanism, just as long as it is combined with Christian faith. They focused on the fact that mankind was created by God and is preferred by God and that God gave mankind faith and reason and man should use both for the glory of God. They disliked dogmatic authority and challenged institutions which inhibited full development of individuals. Christian humanists tended to be less secular and they favoured the early, simple version of Christianity. | Desiderius Erasmus 1466-1536 Christian Humanist

6: John Wycliffe (1324-1384) was a theologian and early supporter of the reform in the Roman Catholic Church during the fourteenth century. The status of the papacy was badly damaged when the pope moved from Rome to the city of Avignon and this sudden move caused the Babylonian Captivity (1309-1376). In 1378, the College of Cardinals separated into French and anti-French and therefore elected two separate popes; one at Rome backed by England and Germany and one at Avignon backed by France, both claiming to be higher in power than the other. While the popes were trying to exceed past one another, a sense of religious insecurity settled over Europe. | OTTOMAN TURKS | John Wycliffe

7: The popes had decided that the churches needed to be reformed and purified, so they brought in Wycliffe, the most notable reformer of this time. Instead of reforming the church as he was suppose to, he declared it different to true Christian poverty. He said that in any case involving religion, the bible had the overall final say. Wycliffe refused the pope's summons stating, “For I believe that Jesus Christ, that gave in his own person this gospel, is very God and very man, and by his heart passes all other laws”. He was the first person to translate the Bible into the English language and is considered the main individual who started the Protestant Reformation. | “This Bible is for the government of the people, by the people and for the people”- John Wycliffe

8: John Hus | John Hus was a Bohemian reformer, martyr and was a big supporter of John Wycliffe. Hus was an on ordained priest and often served as a preacher for the Bethlehem Chapel in Prague. Hus stressed the worldwide priesthood of all believers and claimed that the only head of the church was Christ and that Christ had the final say over the pope. In 1410, the Church banned him as a heretic. | 1372-1415

9: Five years later, Hus acknowledged good faith and decided to go before the Council of Constance and defend his views and his outlook on life. Things didn't go Hus’ way and in the summer of 1415, he was burned on a stake. After his death, John's principles were ultimately merged with those of Calvinism and Lutheranism. Although Bohemia was eventually reconverted back to Catholicism, still to this day the execution of Hus remains a Czech national holiday. | John Hus is still remembered to the present day

10: PROTESTANT REFORMATION | Martin Luther | Martin Luther was a German priest and professor of religion who started the Protestant Reformation. Luther taught that forgiveness is not earned by good deeds received with good faith from God. His religion challenged the authority of the pope of the Roman Catholic Church by teaching people that the Bible is the one and only true source of knowledge.

11: Those who are recognized with Luther's teachings are called Lutherans. He interpreted the Bible into the language of the people and made it more available, causing a remarkable impact on the church and on German culture. It has encouraged the development of a standard version of the German language and has added several principles to the art of translation. | Martin Luther Reformer 1483-1546 | “You are not only responsible for what you say, but also for what you do not say”

12: Johann Tetzel | Johann Tetzel was a Dominican priest accused of selling indulgences. The citizens of Europe under the law of the Roman Catholic Church were kept in the darkness when it came to knowing about the truth behind Tetzel indulgences. Doctrines liked to scare the citizens which eventually got people into believing in witches and demons. Tetzel fed on those superstitious fears and it was simple to convince people that a loved one at that very moment was burning in hell. He encouraged them pay money so that they could escape hell and be set free. In a way, the sale of indulgences was a way to get the poor to voluntarily pay taxes.

13: In October of 1517, Martin Luther enforced the death warrant on indulgences to the cathedral door in Wittenberg. He possessed 95 theses and each individual one had powerful opinions against everything about the sale of indulgences. Luther’s words were soon dispersed all over Germany and John Tetzel's indulgence sales came to an sudden hault. | 1465-1519 | Johann Tetzel convincing the poor that donations will free loved ones

14: John Calvin | John Calvin was born in France and was one of the early church reformers. He was an extremely religious man who founded the religion of Calvinism. Calvinism emphasized power of God and salvation by grace alone. It was an effort to rediscover the role of the church in daily life and the role of the individuals relationship to God. Calvinism has some distinct features that today are forgotten by some Protestants. | "There is not one blade of grass, there is no colour in this world that is not intended to make us rejoice."- John Calvin

15: However, in his time, Calvinism formed many early Protestant church beliefs, particularly among the Huguenots of France and the Protestant movements in Germany, the Netherlands and Poland. Some of the Puritan beliefs of the New World immigrants can be directly related to the theories of John Calvin.

16: COUNTER REFORMATION | Jesuits | The Jesuits, or Society of Jesus (1534), was founded just before the Counter-Reformation and was a movement whose principle was to reform the Catholic Church and oppose the Protestant Reformers. Jesuits wanted people to strive and continue their obedience to scripture as interpreted by Catholic policy. St. Ignatius of Loyola, founder of this society, and the early Jesuits did recognize that the church was in desperate need of reforming. | “The enemy is like a woman, weak in face of opposition, but correspondingly strong when not opposed. In a quarrel with a man, it is natural for a woman to lose heart and run away when he faces up to her; on the other hand, if the man begins to be afraid and to give ground, her rage, vindictiveness and fury overflow and know no limit.”- St. Loyola of Ignatius

17: Ignatius's persistence on a very high level of academic preparation for ministry was an intentional response to the relatively poor educated people. In 1540, the society began participating constantly in world affairs. Encouraged by the inspirational writings of their founder and their dedication to the pope's jurisdiction, the Jesuits rapidly became known as the schoolmasters of Europe. They taught not only the doctrine of the Catholic faith but also subjects such as the Latin classics and dancing. | St. Ignatius of Loyola 1491-1556 Founder of the Jesuits

18: Council of Trent | The Council of Trent was the 19th council of the Roman Catholic Church and it was held at Trent in northern Italy (1545-1563). It represented a major turning point in the efforts of the Catholic Church to respond to the challenge of the Protestant Reformation and was a key part of the Counter Reformation. Attempts to create a council such as this one had been made, but previous attempts were refused by Francis I of France who feared it would strengthen Charles V, and by the popes themselves, who were worried that there would be a renewal of Conciliarism. | The Council in Santa Maria Maggiore church

19: The council tried improve many of the main abuses within the church that had instigated the Reformation. The Council of Trent helped to assemble a movement within the Catholic ministry for extensive religious renewal and reform, an association that produced considerable results in both the 16th and 17th century.

20: AGE OF DISCOVERY | Henry the Navigator | Henry the Navigator was an important figure in the early days of the Portuguese Empire. He was accountable for the early expansion of European exploration and marine trade with other continents. He is most famous for the voyages of discovery that he organized and financed, which eventually led to the rounding of Africa and the establishment of sea routes to the Indies.

21: When he was 21, Prince Henry founded a place ancient geographers referred to as the western edge of the earth. The organization included libraries, an ship-building facilities, a church and living quarters for staff. The institutes primary exploration goal was to explore the western coast of Africa to locate a route to Asia. | 1394-1460

22: Christopher Columbus | Christopher Columbus was one of the worlds greatest explorers. He went on 4 different voyages, his first one on October 12th, 1942, where traveled west and found an island in the Bahamas. On November 27th and 28th, during his second voyage, he passed Navidad and Puerto Rico and on his third voyage he found Jamaica and South Africa. On his fourth and last voyage, Columbus found Guanaja Island and Honduras in Central America. Christopher Columbus tried to arrive at India but instead discovered the New World.

23: The Santa Maria | 1451-1506 | Painting of Columbus when he discovered the New World

24: Prestor John | In the 12th century, an unexplained letter began to travel around Europe. The letter enclosed information about a magical kingdom in the East that was potentially going to be infested by barbarians. This letter was allegedly written by a king known as Prester John. | Lucas Cranach's interpretation of the Fountain of Youth

25: The letter first surfaced in Europe as early as the 1160’s and there were over 100 different versions of the letter published. His letters stated that this apparent kingdom was peaceful, serene and crime free. It had rivers filled with gold and it was home of the Fountain of Youth. Explorers later found out that this kingdom was not located in Asian, but in Abyssinia.Prester John overwhelmingly affected the geographical information of Europe by inspiring interest in distant lands and igniting voyages outside of Europe.

26: AGE OF RELIGIOUS WARS | Thirty Years War | The Thirty Years War took place from 1618 to 1648 and was the most critical conflicts in Europe until the 20th century. The War began as a religious civil war between the Roman Catholics and Protestants. The war soon developed into a devastating struggle for the balance of power in Europe.

27: The Thirty Years War was first and foremost a struggle over the religious and political order within the Empire. It was neither predictable or the outcome of opposing religious resentment. As a result of the war, all of Germany was ruined and at least half of its people were killed. Germany stayed separated amongst local rulers and France was known as the dominant power in Europe. | Gustavus Adolphus: a man who had an army in this war

28: English Civil War | The English Civil War began in 1642 and it was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists. There were a total of 3 wars; the first 2 were against the supporters of the Long Parliament and King Charles I. The third was because of hostility between supporters of King Charles II and the supporters of the Rump Parliament. The defeat of King Charles II at Worcester in 1651 was the final action in the English Civil war.

30: Absolutism | Absolutism (1610-1789) is a term used to describe a form of royal authority that is uninhibited by all other institution; in simpler terms, it's when the government has absolute power over everything. | Historians often considered Louis XIV of France as an archetype of absolutism

31: Absolutism is characterized by the ending of feudal separation, fortification of power with the sovereign, rise of state authority, confederacy of the state laws, and a decline in the influence of the Church and the nobility.

32: Louis XIV | Louis XIV is perceived as one of the world's most extraordinary monarchs in history. The 17th century is considered as the age of Louis XIV. He characterized the ideal of kingship. During his reign France became balanced and became one of the strongest powers in Europe. Louis made sure that France became the perfect culture. He tried to make sure that France was at its highest power so that he could boast it to the world. French culture became one of the most interesting in the world, and Louis’ name was associated with nothing but greatness.

33: Louis XIV was never doubted his right to be king which made him a great monarch and he was he was always able to maintain a strong kingdom. His dictatorship was admired everywhere and Louis XIV, was in fact, the ideal king. Of course many other had tried to live up to his legacy, but most, if not all failed to do so. | “First feelings are always the most natural.”- Louis XIV | 1638-1715

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