S: Inside Ancient Egypt
FC: Inside Ancient Egypt Andrew
1: table of contents family life the pharaoh Religion, Gods and Goddesses the pyramids
2: Family Life To the Egyptians children were their greatest treasure. there were significant differences between the lower class and the wealthy families and also the Nobility in how they raised their children. the wealthy Egyptians had slaves and servants to take care of their children. The lower class parents raised their own children. If a couple did not have a child, they prayed to gods and goddesses for help; placed letters on tombs of dead relatives asking them to influence the gods; and used magic. women had to obey their fathers and husbands, but they were equal in many ways. They were highly respected. women were able to participate in business deals and own land. they also represented themselves in court cases and faced the same penalties as men. sometimes a pharaoh was really a figurehead and their wife or mother was the true ruler. while the main job for women was to raise their children and run their homes, there were some jobs outside the home that they could do. if husbands where unable to, women would run the farms and businesses. women could also work in courts; in temples as acrobats dancers singers and musicians; as maids or nannies;professional mourners; and as perfume makers. training and education for young boys and girls were quite different. young boys were taught trades by their fathers or artisans. wealthy egyptians sent their sons, beginning at age seven, to school where they learned about religion and to read write. Boys also learned to do arithmetic. Young girls were at home working and being trained by their mothers. some girls were taught to read and write and even to become doctors. Children, when grown, took care of elderly parents. when parents died, sons inherited the land, and daughters inherited household goods and jewelry.daughtors could inherit the land if there were no sons in the family. working and being trained by their mothers. some girls were taught to read and write and even to become doctors. Children, when grown, took care of elderly parents. when parents died, sons inherited the land, and daughters inherited household goods and jewelry.daughtors could inherit the land if there were no sons in the family.
3: jewelry.daughtors could inherit the land if there were no sons in the family. Egyptian homes for the noblemen and commoners were both made from adobe bricks of sun-dried mud. Their homes were actually very different. the homes of noblemen were, of course, more elaborated. noblemen's houses were divided into three areas: a reception area, a hall, and private quarters. the walls were decorated with leather hangings. tiles covered the floors. the homes of the commoners were three-storied town houses. there were usually businesses on the first story. the second and third floors had the living space. during the summer months, they slept on the roof. Each household disposed of sewage by dumping it on streets, rivers and in pits. Inside Most homes were stools, small boxes for jewelry and cosmetics, chests for clothing, pottery jars, and oil lamps. last but not least was the fly catcher.
4: Marriage in ancient egypt Marriage was very different from marriage as we know it. peasant girls generally married at a younger age, about 12 years old. parents usually arranged Marriages. Most men could have only one wife, but kings often had several wives. a pre-nuptialagreement was signed between the couple before the ceremony. it stated that the wife received an allowance from the husband,and the wife kept all of her items if they divorced. Husband and wives could both own land . divorces were uncommon. if divorced the wife had custody of the children and was able to remarry. The Pharaoh The pharaoh was the most powerful person in ancient egypt and was thought of as more than a king. As the political and religious leader, he was considered a god as well. the pharaoh held the title of "lord of the Two Lands" and "High Priest of Every Temple". He was the ruler of Upper and Lower Egypt, and he also represented the gods on Earth. As the political power, he owned all of the land, made laws, collected taxes, and defended his people against enemy invasions. A pharaoh could also go to war when he wanted to control foreign lands. Conquered people had to accept him as their ruler and give him the best quality and most
5: valuable goods from their land. As the high priest, the pharaoh represented all of the gods on Earth. To honor the gods, he performed rituals and built temples. Many pharaohs tried to leave an eternal legacy, but only a few have accomplished this goal. This is because most of their tombs were destroyed or robbed. These pharaohs did accomplish this goal and made important contributions: Akhenaten pushed his people towards the belief in one god; Amenhotep III beautified Ancient Egypt; Cleopatra Vii was able to maintain her power as pharoah; Hatshepsut was ambitious and dressed like a pharaoh to preserve her power; Khufu was responsible for the construction of the largest pyramid; King Tut is the famous boy pharaoh; Ramses II
6: was one of Egypt's most powerful rulers; Snefru was responsible for the building of many pyramids. Religion, Gods and Goddesses Religion played a very important role in ancient egyptian life. The Egyptians first followed polytheism which is the worship of more than one god or diety. Ancient Egyptians worshiped up to 2,000 gods and goddesses. It wasn't until the pharaoh, akenaton, who left polytheism. His worship surrounded the Aten, the disc of the sun associated with the god Ra. Most of the dieties were part human and part animal. For example, Horus was the god of the sky and had the body of a human and the head of a hawk. Ancient egyptians viewed many animals as holy. Amon-Ra and Osiris were the Two most important gods in ancient egyptian history. Ra was the sun god. He had the body of a man, the head of a hawk, and wore a headdress with a sun disk. It was believed that ra was swallowed every night by the sky goddess nut and was reborn every morning. He supposedly traveled through the underworld at night. There he appeared as a man with a ram's head. Osiris was the god of the dead and ruler of the underworld. He was also a god of resurrrection and fertility. Stories about Osiris contain the concept of immortality. Osiris's job was to make sure the dead enjoyed their afterlife.
7: He was believed to look like a mummified man wearing a white cone-like headdress with feathers. Ancient egyptians believed Osiris gave them the gift of barley , an important crop. Ancient Egyptian religious beliefs were included in The "book of the dead". The concept of the afterlife was so important that many people spent a lot of time on earth preparing for the next world. Their concern was to susrvive after leaving their physical body. Ancient egyptians built temple to worship their gods and goddesses. Each city built a temple especially for the god of the region. The temple was thought to be the center of communication between humans and gods. The priests of the temples were responsible for taking care of the needs of gods. They were in charge of funeral rites, education, guiding artists and works of art, and giving people with problems advice. The most important goddesses of ancient Egypt include Isis, the protective goddesses who used powerful magic spells to help people in need. Hathor, the goddess of love and joy, was seen as a helper of women when they gave birth. Sekhmet was the warrior goddess of upper egypt and provided protection.
8: the pyramids The pyramids were build to protect the body of a dead pharaoh and were constructed to last forever. They believed that death was a journey toward eternal life. The pharaoh's body had to be well protected so that his spirit would recognize it. this led to the process of mummification. Once the pharaoh's body was mummified, he was buried with his most prized possessions and things that would help him in his afterlife. Pyramids held boats, wooden statues, stone carvings, clothing, food, and luxury items such as jewelry. A sarcophagus was made of heavy stone to protect the king's mummy. Unfortunately the tombs were robbed and the bodies removed. Pharaohs looked for other ways to protect their mummies, and they carved their tombs among cliffs or underground. the most popular and most visited pyramids today are the pyramids of Giza. These huge elaborate pyramids took an enormous amount of time, planning, and accuracy to build.
9: Many attempts were made, but perfection was hard to achieve. Finally in Dahshur, a pyramid was built with a 43 degree angle and was stable. After that the three pyramids of Giza were constructed. Pyramid complexes were made up of the main pyramid, a surrounding courtyard, a smaller cult pyramid for the king's soul, and a mortuary temple next to the main pyramid. Some complexes had smaller pyramids for family members .
10: Bibliography http://www.tinytravelsite.com/wp-content/uploads/Giza-pyramids-Egypt_20090218143916.jpg http://webzoom.freewebs.com/belenen/htms/egypt-gods-ennead.html http://www.ancientegypt.co.uk/gods/explore/main.html http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/pyramids.htm http://www2.sptimes.com/Egypt/EgyptCredit.4.2.html http://kingtutone.com/ http://www.ancientegypt.co.uk/menu.html